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Monday, June 10, 2019

Veterinary medicine: Corneal lipidosis in dogs.

Veterinary medicine: Corneal lipidosis in dogs.Corneal lipidosis consists of cholesterol deposits in your dog's eye. These deposits might or might not interfere with your dog's vision or cause pain. Canine lipidosis might be hereditary in nature,hereditary corneal dystrophy begins in one eye, but eventually affects both of them, there is usually a cloudy area in the middle of the eye. Generally, vision isn't seriously impaired. Veterinary medicine: Corneal lipidosis in dogs. Corneal degeneration often occurs because of irritation, so it usually affects only one eye. Cholesterol and mineral deposits develop as the cornea degenerates. Older canines often suffer from a form of corneal degeneration because of other health issues common in aged dogs, such as kidney disease. Dogs with high cholesterol levels, diabetes or hypothyroidism often develop corneal lipidosis in one or both eyes.

Veterinary medicine: ..Ephiphora in dogs.

Veterinary medicine: Ephiphora in dogs. Ephiphora is the veterinary term for excessive tearing. Common causes include small tear ducts, tear duct inflammation or a plugged tear duct, foreign objects in the tear duct and ingrown eyelashes. Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, causes inflammation of the eye's conjunctiva, the mucous membranes lining the eye. Not only is ephiphora a sign of conjunctivitis, but a severe bout of the condition can cause tear duct scarring resulting in constant discharge. Other eye diseases, including glaucoma or corneal ulcers, can cause ephiphora. Depending on the problem, your vet might refer your dog to a veterinary ophthalmologist for treatment. Ephiphora in dogs. The facial structure of some dog breeds predisposes them to excessive tearing. That's especially true of dogs with shallow eye sockets, including the bichon frise, poodle, Maltese, cocker spaniel and Shih Tzu. In general, brachycephalic, or short-nosed, breeds have facial structures and skinfolds predisposing them to ephiphora. These include the pug, bulldog, Pekingese, Lhasa apso and boxer If there is no physical reason for your dog's excessive tearing, dietary changes might solve or reduce the problem. Feed your dog a high-quality food free of dyes. You might provide distilled water for him to drink, rather than tap water. Tap water, especially if it originates from wells, might have a high iron content. The iron could cause normal tearing to appear rust-colored.

Veterinary medicine: when panting is a bad sign.

Veterinary medicine: when panting is a bad sign.Panting is totally normal! It helps dogs cool off and is also a natural response when a dog is thirsty, excited, happy or scared. Panting isn't normally a reason for concern, but if your dog is panting excessively, it could be a possible sign of heat exhaustion or overexercise. When heavy panting is accompanied by other symptoms, you should have your dog checked by a vet. Heart problems can be a cause of excessive panting.If your dog is panting excessively during exercise, especially if the activity isn't very strenuous, this could be a symptom of a heart problem. Watch for heavy panting paired with coughing, lethargy and an inability to get comfortable. These symptoms may be a sign of a progressive heart value malfunction called mitral insufficiency. Cushings disease :Take your dog to the vet if excessive panting is combined with increased hunger and thirst, weight gain, a swollen abdomen and issues with reproductive organs. These symptoms can indicate Cushing's disease. Males can experience shrinking testicles while females will not go into heat. Dogs inflicted with Cushing's may develop hair loss and thin, easily bruised skin. Sleeping problems and lethargy are also common symptoms. more.

Veterinary medicine: do puppies pant while sleeping?

Veterinary medicine: do puppies pant at while sleeping? The answer is yes. In fact, lots of panting is generally normal for a puppy -- even in his sleep. However too much could indicate a health problem. Because how can you tell the difference between normal and abnormal amounts of panting in a young pup? It's actually not very easy, which is just one reason why your puppy should have regular check-ups with the veterinarian. It's also an important reason why you should pay close attention to his living conditions and general well-being as he grows. Puppies don't just pant to catch their breath, they do it to burn off excess heat. Dogs does not sweat so the moisture in his mouth carries heat away from his bodies which is why he leaves his mouth open and pants. Panting can indicate general health problems as well as heat-related issues, extra care is the norm. If your puppy is too warm at night,especially if he has irregular nasal passages, like pugs and bulldogs do -- he may become overheated and/or struggle to breathe. Heavy panting at all hours also may indicate a respiratory problem such as pneumonia, or heart failure. If you're concerned about your Fido's panting and the temperature doesn't seem like a factor, see your vet immediately. Is It Normal for a Puppy to Pant While Sleeping? | Cuteness

Veterinary medicine: why is my puppy panting?

Veterinary medicine: why is my dog panting? Puppy Play: Puppies tend to have sudden bursts of energy where they engage in boisterous play and then they suddenly flop down and fall asleep. Since your puppy moves a lot, his heart beats faster and his respiratory rate is faster. Open-mouth panting in this case is a normal reaction that allows the pup to get more oxygen into his bloodstream. Pups with smashed-in faces such as pugs and bulldogs also tend to visibly pant more because of their shorter snouts. Puppy Emotions: Your puppy doesn't have to necessarily be tired to pant a lot. Puppies may also pant when they're excited, and with so much going on in a puppy's life, you can't blame them. If you're socializing your puppy and taking him to puppy classes, he's surely exposed to a whole lot of exciting sights and sounds as he discovers the world.more

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Iowa-Bred Dogs Have Disease That Can Pass to Humans.

Iowa-Bred Dogs Have Disease That Can Pass to Humans.Several dogs from a small-dog breeding facility in Iowa have been confirmed to have a disease that can be passed to people, according to state veterinarian Dr. Jeff Kaisand."Canine brucellosis" affects only dogs and humans and is spread through reproductive fluids, said the Iowa Department of Public Health, USA Today reported. In dogs, signs of the disease include infertility, spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. In people, symptoms include fever, sweats, headache, joint pain and weakness, the state health department said"The threat to most pet owners is considered very low," the state's statement said. "Dog breeders, veterinary staff and anyone who comes in contact with blood, tissues and fluids during the birthing process may be at higher risk and should consult their primary care physician.".

Posh ‘natural’ pet food recalled as cats and their owners develop bovine tuberculosis.

Posh ‘natural’ pet food recalled as cats and their owners develop bovine tuberculosis.Fifty pedigree animals on a pricy gourmet diet have been taken ill and at least one has died, with two people also infected..A luxury cat food designed for pedigree pets has triggered an outbreak of a deadly strain of tuberculosis that has infected 50 cats and at least two of their owners. The “natural cat” wild venison cat food has been subjected to a nationwide recall by Natural Instinct, the company which sold it to thousands of cat owners as a healthier alternative to mass-produced pet food. It follows research by veterinary scientists at Edinburgh University who investigated why 50 cats in 30 homes around Britain had developed bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Almost all the cats were expensive pedigrees whose owners kept them indoors, meaning they had no contact with livestock or wild animals which can carry such infections. The one thing all the cats had in common was that they were fed Natural Instinct’s raw wild venison cat food which costs about £4.50 for two daily portions, compared with under 20p for a typical dried cat food. Bovine TB is related to human TB and is now so common in UK cattle that strains are infecting wildlife such as badgers, foxes and deer. Danielle Gunn-Moore, professor of feline medicine at Edinburgh University, who co-authored the research, said: “Raw meat diets could be good for cats, in theory, but there is a clear risk of infection so checks are vital. It’s not just bTB — there’s also a risk of toxoplasmosis, salmonella and other pathogens.”She and her colleagues gathered reports of bovine TB in cats in 30 households around the UK. The team had to test 90 felines and refer 100 people for tests. Two people have been found to be infected but more could emerge.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Joint Supplements for Dogs.

Managing canine orthopedic disease with joint supplements will help your dog live comfortably.Phytotherapy (“plant medicine”) is as old as humankind. Turmeric is a powerful spice and has recently received a great deal of attention in human medicine. It is considered a strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Fish oil Fish oil are an excellent source of fatty acids, which are critical for canine health. Dogs cannot synthesize enough of their own, so fatty acids must be supplemented through diet. Deficiencies can lead to coat, skin, joint, and reproductive problems.The common supplement is the cod liver oil however,this can be sourced naturally by feeding dogs with fish rich in omega 3 such as the mackerel. Coconut oil. The benefits of coconut oil are enormous and have found usefulness in both animals and man. Coconut oil also contains lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid that is converted in the body to monolaurin, a monoglyceride compound with numerous beneficial properties, such as anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal. 1) Help with weight loss as medium chain triglycerides increase metabolism this sends signals of satiety and cannot be stored as fat. 2) Improve digestion and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.(A,D,E,K) 3) Benefit the skin and coat 4) Provide a rapid form of non-carbohydrate energy. more Glucosamine chondroitin This the most used supplement, because of its application in human medicine. Glucosamine and chondroitin prevent breakdown of the joint and have anti-inflammatory effects. Studies have shown improvement in dogs with joint disease.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Soaking Dry Dog food.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Soaking Dry Dog food. If you've ever soaked your dog's food, you're aware of how much dry dog food expands when immersed in water. It's a little horrifying, actually, to realize how much more space a certain amount of food will require in a dog's stomach and gut once the dog's digestive juices hydrate the individual kibbles. It nearly doubles in volume. The kibbles are like little sponges - some more than others. Soaking dry dog food by adding water will definitely increase the palatability of dry food for some dogs,help digestibility and prevents bloat.It is very important not to let moisten food stand for long hours at room temperature to prevent bacterial growth . While most people soak the dry food with water,others use bone broth and many others use milk,just to ensure gut health of their pets. According to MastiffLover "I've been soaking my dogs kibble for about 45 years now. When I was a little girl my parents best friends lost their dog to bloat and I remember them saying their vet told them that it was probably because they weren't soaking her food and that she would always drink a bunch of water after eating." Jenny does these to her dogs kibble "If you give it enough 'soaking' time it will increase about four-fold :-(I no longer fed my dogs 'bowls' of dry food -- moistened of not. I prefer to feed hard biscuits -- large enough that they cannot be swallowed whole. I cannot understand WHY pet food manufacturers do not market their dry food as biscuit rather than pelletized bits. Adapted from whole dog journal.

Saturday, March 16, 2019

Veterinary Medicine: Xerostomia in dogs.

Veterinary Medicine: Xerostomia in dogs. Xerostomia is also referred to as dry mouth,a condition that occurs when the dog stops producing saliva. Drooling shows that your dog is producing saliva ,this helps to wash over the teeth,helps moisten food during eating and keeps the oral cavity clean. Xerostomia in dogs is not painful but it can affect swallowing of food,results in dry sticky gums and bad breath. The common causes of xerostomia in dogs are 1) Dehydration. 2)Nerve damage. 3)Drug interactions. 4) Cancer treatment. Treatment is based on solving the underlying issues,but the dog is encouraged to drink more water to prevent dehydration.

Tuesday, March 12, 2019


VETERINARY MEDICINE: THE BENEFITS OF YOGURT IN DOGS.The Benefits of Yogurt for Dogs.Did you know that there is a natural option that can improve almost immediately your dog’s digestive system and in a healthy way? It is called Yogurt! Yogurt, what is it? Yogurt comes from the fermented milk by a bacteria called Lactobacillus Acidophilus that produce lactic acid. This bacteria, considered one of the “good ones,” it helps in the lactose digestion process and collaborates to keep the natural balance of the internal bacteria culture found in the digestive system as part of the native intestinal flora (Gut Flora). Yogurt is one of the best natural calcium sources that help control or avoid some gastrointestinal issues like diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel movement and yeast infection. It also promotes the production of niacin and folic acid, essential nutrients in the pregnancy stage (humans and dogs). The benefits of yoghurt for dogs: 1)The immune system is improved and enhanced. 2)Gut flora, balance control and digestion improvement of the lactose. 3)Cholesterol, it helps to control and reduce high levels of total cholesterol. 4)Yeast infection, It helps to reduce the incidence. 5)Good source of animal protein that helps to build muscle. 6)Provides a right amount of Potassium, essential to maintain muscles and nerves healthy and to regulate fluid levels in your dog’s body. 7)Good source also of Calcium that helps to develop bone health.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Temperament and Behaviors of Chow Chow Dogs .

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Temperament and Behaviors of Chow Chow Dogs. The Chow Chow dog has a lion or teddy-bear-like appearance and tends to be quite reserved in nature. This Chow Chow dog temperament can change when the dog is treated in an aggressive manner. This dog carries itself with an air of pride and expects to be treated with respect. There is a tendency for Chow Chow dog behaviors to be painted in a negative light, and they have been said to be fierce and vicious dogs, but this type of behavior is only displayed around strangers or with breeds that have not been socialized well or at all. . Chow Chow Dog Behaviors Outlined. 1)Clean and Quiet: The most interesting of the Chow Chow dog behaviors is its tendency to be clean compared to most dogs although it sheds a lot. Its “clean” behavior makes it a great dog to have as a house pet, but its shedding will need getting used to. The Chow Chow dog temperament leans towards quietness as this dog usually minds its own business. If you don’t bother it, it will not bother you, unless you come too close for comfort, then you will get a reaction from it. The “clean” behavior of Chow Chow dogs makes them easy to house-train compared to other dogs. Their cleanliness can almost be compared to that of a cat. 2)Strong Willed: A behavior of Chow Chow dogs that must be managed is the tendency to be strong willed. Unfortunately, this trait does not show up until the dog is much older. The Chow Chow dog temperament will not allow its owner to beat it into submission, nor does it feel inclined to please its trainer. The personality of the Chow Chow dog is one that runs on respect. If its owner can earn its respect, then it will obey. Consistency in the enforcement of rules, be they house rules or behavior expectations, as well as an understanding of his temperament are bound to bend the will of your Chow Chow. Variations in the tone of voice are enough to communicate instructions or wants, never feel tempted to use harsh methods to win his respect. 3)Suspicious and Territorial: Chow chow dog behaviors towards strangers can be very aggressive and ferocious as they are not very welcoming towards people they are unfamiliar with. This unfriendly behavior of Chow Chow dogs can be managed with proper socialization or by ensuring that you are present when your guests are approaching your home by requesting them to alert you with their arrival. Take a little time to introduce your friends and family to your Chow Chow so that he is familiar with them. Aggressive Chow Chow dog behaviors can be handled through obedience training when the dog is still a puppy, and then managed through adulthood. As mentioned, the Chow Chow personality demands respect, it does not take kindly to being teased or mistreated

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Behaviors of Traumatized Dogs and How to Handle them.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Behaviors of Traumatized Dogs and How to Handle them. Dogs feel happiness, sadness and all different emotions and sensations but triggered in a different way. Dogs response to trauma are all different and will respond to different situations in different ways. For example, some dogs can deal with trauma and seem completely fine, but some can’t, and sometimes with a situation not related to the trauma..the dog “loses it”. Same goes with the severity of the reaction, some dogs are badly affected, others just slightly affected and some dogs do not seem to be affected at all, there is no possible way that we can generalize and say all dogs respond the same. It is sad to say, but not all dogs have a good start in life, and for some, it can be more than simple neglect. It can be an abused dog or mistreated and this can have consequences dog’s behavior, social skills, and the way how interacts with people and other dogs. If you know up front your new pet has a traumatic background, you should make the transition as comfortable as possible. Try to create a routine with simple things like feeding it at the same time every day, giving it space for the most part and, if you have children, make sure they don’t overwhelm the dog… at first can make a big difference. Do the introduction to other pets slowly, not all at once, and if noises seem to upset him/her, keep the volume to a minimum until the dog adjusts. Animals adapt very easily to the external environment, so many will adjust with nothing more than a loving and supportive environment. But if the trauma is severe, it will be better to use the professional intervention of a certified animal behavior that can determine the best method to deal with a specific issue. Tips to deal with Traumatized Dogs. 1) Find a safe place for your dog in your house. A dog crate or his preferred spot for your dog with a dog bed will develop a clear structure of safety. This is the safe place for your dog, do not create a negative experience in that area, for example: don’t take a crate as a punishment to enclose your dog for something wrong that he/she made. 2)Avoid any situation that causes the dog fear A traumatized dog facing a stress situation can feel fear, and the fear is reinforced by the reaction to the trauma exposed, so then the fear to the same recurrent scenario can become stronger and so on. 3)Do not confront its fears or force the dog in any way If you feel you can’t manage how to help your dog the best way is to approach to a professional where he slowly and gradually can be desensitized to its perceived fears. A dog trainer specialized in dog behaviors and fear aggression will be very useful. 4)Have fun with your dog Do as much with your dog that he/she enjoy as possible. Having fun with your dog will help to increase the trust and confidence in you. 5)Never punish a fearful dog Sometimes we can misunderstand that the reaction to a trauma can be just fear and show obedience and behavior issues not listening commands. Remember, a punishment may up the fear for the dog and instead of just looking fearful it may start to react with aggression. 6)Watch your dog’s body language Dog’s body language Always take attention for signs of stress such as leash puller or pusher behavior, slower or faster movement, freezing, lip licking, yawning, etc.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Understanding Dog Barking.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Understanding Dog Barking.Barking is one way of communication that all dogs use, and it means different things depending on the scenario.Sometimes it can go out of control, and when this happens, it is your job to find out why your dog is barking so much or often to stop him/ her and control the situation. First, you need to understand three facts about why dogs bark:Fact One: It is natural, Dogs bark. Fact Two: A dog barking is not necessarily a dangerous dog.Fact Three: Excessive and out-of-control Barking can test our patience. WHATS HAPPENING WHEN A DOG IS BARKING EXCESSIVELY? As a signal of distress sent by your dog, it is a message to you for something happening.Why dogs bark? As part of the standard behavior of a dog, they can bark for a good reason such as a stranger approaching your house or for an unknown noise inside the house.But dogs can bark for other reasons that cannot be appropriate. 1) Fear:People misunderstand this kind of barking often. Fear barking may sound aggressive and can be identified as a threat, but it’s just a dog trying to create space between himself and what is triggering the fear. 2) For Territorial or for Protection:Triggered by the feel of invading the dog’s territory or for a threat. The aggressiveness and loudness of the barking could increase if the danger gets closer to the dog or his territory. 3)For Attention-seeking: Used by puppies and young dogs but also for older dogs to get your attention hoping they can get something they want (food, water, a toy, to go outside, etc.)Some dogs also bark excessively when bored. These dogs just want a way to release their energy accumulated due to the lack of exercise, entertainment, and a more stimulating environment. 4) Separation Anxiety:Dogs can bark stimulated by anxiety in a high pitch. This is the bark that may bother your neighbors. 5)Self-identification:As a way of communicating with other dogs, they can bark saying ” Hi there, I am over here.” Triggered by the other dogs barking and stop after a while by itself. HOW TO CURB NONSTOP BARKING. Nonstop barking is a problem for many dog owners.This becomes more critical if you’re taking cues from your pet. A guard dog’s bark may signal potential danger. Dogs usually bark when someone approaches their territory. You want the dog to alert you of anything suspicious instead of nonstop barking. The following method can curb this bad trait. Allow the dog to bark for a bit in those situations and then command it to come. Reward it with a treat for a connection to be made with suspicious activity and alerting a family member.It should eventually become a reflex to bark and go to a family member when the dog’s suspicion is aroused.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: How to Train Your Dog to Be a Guard Dog.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: How to Train Your Dog to Be a Guard Dog. Dogs are great for companionship, and they’re known to improve our quality of life. They give us unconditional love and affection.Your beloved pooch can also provide added protection for your home.Your pet can be taught ways to alert you of potential dangers. Fido can also protect you and your family from being physically harmed. You can teach your pet the basics of being a guard dog with a little time and patience. This type of training is best left to professionals, but basic skills can be taught at home.Professional training is generally done by one person, but everyone should participate when training is done at home. Your dog should interact with everyone in the home for safety and security reasons. Family members and other pets should never be perceived as a threat. Obedience training. You have to be able to communicate with your dog to exert control over its actions. Basic dog obedience training is necessary for a solid foundation to build on. Obedience is helpful for the average pet dog, but it’s crucial for a guard dog. Your dog has to be able to respond to your commands quickly and correctly in situations that pose a danger to the family.Your dog should be taught basic commands and be able to respond immediately when prompted. Basic commands such as come, sit, down, stay and heel should be practiced.It’s important to train your dog to respond to commands exclusively from you and household members.This includes accepting treats or food. Socialization. Socialization is needed for your dog to be able to differentiate between a normal situation and a dangerous one.Your dog should be taught to behave indifferently while in the presence of unfamiliar people, places or things. For example, your dog will likely see people and other dogs during your daily walks. Your dog should feel comfortable and safe.They should not view people or animals as a threat during daily outings. The ideal time for socializing dogs is up to about 16 weeks, but it can be done at later stages.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Veterinary medicine: Strangles outbreak kills 4000 donkeys in Niger.

Veterinary medicine: Strangles outbreak kills 4000 donkeys in Niger.An outbreak of strangles has claimed the lives of more than 4000 donkeys in the west African country of Niger since early December. Officials say that more than 8000 donkeys were affected by the contagious bacterial infection, which is also known as equine distemper, and more than half succumbed since the infection appeared in the first 10 days of December in the north of the country in Agadez, Niger’s gateway to the Sahara. Official statistics show Niger has a population of more than 1.5 million donkeys. The Ingall area was the worst affected, and the government’s minister for pastoral issues, Mohamed Boucha, visited Agadez this week to assess the impact of the outbreak.Veterinary officials said the strangles risk was heightened as the treatment of a sick animal can take several weeks, and the infection can be transferred between equines and through the pasture itself. Herders in the area have been invited to have their donkeys immunised for free by government veterinary services.

Veterinary medicine: How to Stay Healthy at Animal Exhibits.

Veterinary medicine: How to Stay Healthy at Animal Exhibits.Interacting with animals at fairs, zoos, and aquariums can be educational and fun, but it’s important to remember that animals sometimes carry harmful germs that can make us sick. Learn how to stay healthy when visiting animal exhibits. There are many ways to explore the animal world, and many people choose to visit animal exhibits to learn about and interact with animals. Animal exhibits like zoos, petting zoos.Every year, many people get sick after visiting an animal exhibit. From 2010-2015, about 100 outbreaks of illness in people linked to animals in public settings like zoos, fairs, and educational farms were reported to public health officials. Some of the most common harmful germs people get from animals at exhibits are E. coli O157:H7, Cryptosporodium, and Salmonella infections, but there are also many other types of germs that can spread between animals and people. If you forget to wash your hands after petting an animal, or bring food or drinks into an area with animals, you increase your chance of getting sick. Even animals that look clean and healthy can carry harmful germs, and areas where animals live or roam can be contaminated – you don’t have to touch an animal to get sick. Steps to ensure safety. 1)Always wash your hands right after petting animals or touching anything in animal areas (where they live, roam, or eat). 2)Wash your hands when you leave animal areas, even if you did not touch the animals. 3)Running water and soap are the best option, if running water and soap are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. 4)Wash your hands with soap and water as soon as a sink is available. Keep food and drinks out of animal areas.Don’t prepare, serve, or eat food in animal areas (with the exception of service animals, or animals that assist people with disabilities).Don’t share your food with animals, to keep yourself and the animals healthy. Animals should eat the food made for them.

Sunday, March 3, 2019

Veterinary medicine: Flea And Tick Prevention For Cats.

Veterinary medicine: Flea And Tick Prevention For Cats.Fleas, ticks and other parasites are often the bane of you and your cat's health. Stop your cat scratching through regular treatment.Cats aren’t the only ones who suffer from fleas. For every single flea living on your cat, there could be hundreds more developing in your home! Flea bites can lead some cats to develop allergies, whilst parasites can act as intermediate hosts for certain tapeworms. A heavy infestation can also cause anaemia, which is potentially life-threatening.The most recommended method to prevent flea infestations on your cat would be the use of a flea control treatment monthly, especially in the warmer seasons. In addition, the environment should also be treated regularly. Vacuuming and steaming the carpets, cleaning and washing all the bedding, and using carpet sprays are some of the options to prevent having these parasites multiplying in your house. How do I spot fleas? The most obvious sign is persistent scratching. Fleas are dark brown and about 1mm to 2mms long. You may find them – as well as tiny black specks of flea dirt – in your cat's coat during combing.

Veterinary medicine: Cat-Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae Infection).

Veterinary medicine: Cat-Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae Infection).Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial infection spread by cats. The disease spreads when an infected cat licks a person’s open wound, or bites or scratches a person hard enough to break the surface of the skin. About three to 14 days after the skin is broken, a mild infection can occur at the site of the scratch or bite. The infected area may appear swollen and red with round, raised lesions and can have pus. The infection can feel warm or painful. A person with CSD may also have a fever, headache, poor appetite, and exhaustion. Later, the person’s lymph nodes closest to the original scratch or bite can become swollen, tender, or painful. Wash cat bites and scratches well with soap and running water. Do not allow cats to lick your wounds. Contact your doctor if you develop any symptoms of cat-scratch disease or infection. CSD is caused by a bacterium called Bartonella henselae. About 40% of cats carry B. henselae at some time in their lives, although most cats with this infection show NO signs of illness. Kittens younger than 1 year are more likely to have B. henselae infection and to spread the germ to people. Kittens are also more likely to scratch and bite while they play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected. Cats can get infected with B. henselae from flea bites and flea dirt (droppings) getting into their wounds. By scratching and biting at the fleas, cats pick up the infected flea dirt under their nails and between their teeth. Cats can also become infected by fighting with other cats that are infected. The germ spreads to people when infected cats bite or scratch a person hard enough to break their skin. The germ can also spread when infected cats lick at wounds or scabs. How to prevent cat bites.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

The garri revolution.


AGRIBUSINESS : THE GARRI REVOLUTION. Change is the only constant thing in life,follow the trend. Garri story !!! WHY GARRI? why the niche? this is why!!! Garri is easily accessible, affordable and a larger portion of the population are accustomed to the food. Echbee foods thus decided to fortify what was already common in most homes to achieve our purpose of balanced meal with garri. Garri which is the most common by -product is food for over 800 million people in the world, thus fortifying the garri to produce a highly nutritious cereal can generate over 120 billion naira as revenue.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Money ,money and more money.

Dairy goat farming is on a steady rise not only in Kenya but throughout the region. Steady rise in demand Unconfirmed projections show a steady increase in demand for goat milk; up from the current 2 per cent in terms of milk consumption. Cow milk is still and will continue to be the most consumed. Studies have shown that goat milk has more beneficial fatty acids. It also has low cholesterol content compared to cow milk. Subsequently people drinking goat milk have lower chances of getting heart problems. Twitter

Sunday, February 17, 2019

RESEARCH: Chronic kidney disease is on the rise linked to climate change .

RESEARCH: Chronic kidney disease is on the rise linked to climate change .Our kidneys might be vulnerable to the more frequent extreme heat brought on by global warming.In its early stages, chronic kidney disease can lurk silently in the body, causing no symptoms at all. Eventually, as these vital organs fail, the hands and feet start to puff up, and sufferers feel nauseated, achy, and itchy. When the disease reaches its last stage, the kidneys fail and you can die. Around 2000, health officials noticed that chronic kidney disease was on the rise in Central America. An epidemic seemed to be raging among farm workers who toiled in sugarcane fields on the Pacific Coast in El Salvador and Costa Rica — one of the hottest areas in the region. To date, more than 20,000 people have died in the epidemic, and thousands of others have had to go on kidney dialysis to survive. Researchers are now coming together around a hypothesis about what’s driving a little-appreciated epidemic, known as “Mesoamerican nephropathy.” more

Saturday, February 16, 2019


VETERINARY MEDICINE::10 MOST POPULAR WRINKLY DOGS THAT WILL BRING ADORABLE CUTENESS TO YOUR LIFE. The Chinese Shar Pei takes the first spot in any list of the wrinkly canine breeds. Aside from having the most wrinkles, what makes them even more charming is the fact that they carry their wrinkles with utmost pride. The Chinese Shar Pei is a small and dog-shaped bear. These Chinese doggies are also very serious, loving, and loyal. If you wish to hold this furry friend in your arms all the time, it is recommended that you train your pet from a very young age. This is because these canines respect and appreciate their personal space. But, in spite of their gentle and docile appearance, don’t be surprised if your Shar Pei becomes very protective. They also need specific care since their skin is extremely delicate and is prone to bacteria. This is because moisture tends to accumulate in the areas in between their wrinkles.The Chinese Shar Pei is renowned worldwide for their expressive faces and superb wrinkles and their wonderful tongues of blue-black color. Pug takes the biscuit as far as cute is concerned. They have amusing scrunched up foreheads and faces that make them look like they are very worried tiny canines. But, for all you know, these funny looking small wrinkly dogs might just be laughing their heads off at you. Pugs are popular options for people living in apartments since they cannot handle lots of exercise because of their flat faces’ shape. Similar to the English and French Bulldogs, Pugs are brachycephalic canines. In turn, it means that owners should keep a close eye on the diet and weight of their pet throughout their lives. If you carefully look after the special needs of Pugs, caring for them is very easy. Their short coat sheds yet they have modest grooming requirements. Due to their big love for people, you also have to be careful in getting your Pug used to being alone so that he will not develop too much anxiety if left behind.continue Twitter

Veterinary Medicine: 9 Tips To Make Your Dog’s Fur Beautiful.

Veterinary Medicine: 9 Tips To Make Your Dog’s Fur Beautiful.Taking care of your dog’s coat is just as important as regular trips to the vet. Read on for our top 9 tips for a shiny, healthy and beautiful dog’s fur. A Good Brushing Goes a Long Way Your dog’s healthy coat starts with regular brushing with a quality brush.Weekly brushing keeps your dog’s hair clean and dust-free while keeping shedding under control. For longer hair, consider more frequent brushing to keep tangles and mats at bay.Look for wood handles and other natural products to avoid exposing your dog to harsh chemicals and synthetic fibers that can cause allergic reactions. If you are, by any chance, looking to get a dog, be sure to learn about the breed you’re interested in seeing how much they shed, how often regular maintenance will be needed in case you’re concerned about how much time you might need to spend grooming your dog. Continue.

CATS: Training Your Cat to Stop Biting..

CATS: Training Your Cat to Stop Biting.Depending on why your cat is biting your nose, there are several things that you can do to help curtail this unwanted behavior. However, consistency is key, and you can’t view biting as cute one time, and they reprimand your cat the next time they bite you because you send mixed signals that’ll confuse your cat. As with any unwanted behavior from your pets, training your cat to stop biting follows several basic principals. These are the same principals that you follow for any pet that has bad habits that you’re trying to break. They include: 1)Reward wanted or good behavior and punish bad or unwanted behavior. When you reward or punish your cat’s behavior, it should be right after your cat displays the behavior in question. This will help your cat make the connection between the behavior and the reward or punishment.Consistency is key to your success or failure during the training process. Keeping these basic but essential principals in mind, you’ll have to know the specific ways to approach your cat’s biting behavior. The approaches depend on the root cause of your cat’s biting problem, so you want an idea of why your cat is biting so you can use the correct approach. For dominance biting: 2)You have to show your cat that you are in charge and that you are the dominant one. To do this, get loud when your cat bites you because they’re responsive to tone and volume. If it’s a male cat that isn’t neutered, you may want to consider neutering them. Male cats tend to calm down after they have this procedure, and they may stop biting. 3)Start using a dominance item to curb their behavior. An example would be a rolled newspaper, and all you have to do is lightly tap them on the head when they bite you because they’ll eventually respond to just the site of it. Again, keeping the basic principles in mind that we outlined at the start of this section, you can follow the steps below to curb your cat’s biting behavior if they’re simply trying to communicate with you. The steps include:1) Be very cautious and selective with your negative reinforcement. 2)Too much negative reinforcement will make your cat afraid to try and tell you when they need something. 3)Try to establish a less painful form of communication with your cat.4) Do whatever your cat wants you to do when they purr or rub against your leg, and don’t do it if they bite. Don’t be afraid to ignore your cat after the bite you. Cats love to play, and they’ll quickly start to reconsider their biting behavior if they find that it leads to getting ignored. No matter why your cat is biting you, you want to learn their body language and their tells because they’re most likely giving you several clues that they’re about to bite you before they actually do it. For example, if your cat bites you after 10 minutes of petting them, cut the petting time down to around five or eight minutes and stop. When your cat starts using less painful ways to tell you that they need something or when they stop biting altogether, reward them. Praise, treats, and petting is all excellent positive reinforcement tactics that you can use. This training is to be started early,see how...

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Why Does My Cat Bite My Nose?

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Why Does My Cat Bite My Nose?Any cat parent will tell you that we’re passionate about our felines, but we may not be so passionate about some of the behaviors that they see fit to bestow on us. For the most part, kitten bites don’t hurt, but that can change as your cat gets older and starts to bite harder. Reasons Your Cat Could Bite Your Nose There are dozens of reasons why your cat could be biting your nose, and it may be slightly difficult to narrow it down to just one source. However, the following reasons will give you a good idea on why your cat is doing this, and you can start correcting the problem so you and your cat can coexist happily and peacefully. 1)Territorial Behavior Cats can be notoriously territorial, and this extends to their humans as well as their home. If you’ve added another cat to the family recently or if you’ve been around other cats outside of the home, your cat will be able to smell these other cats, and it can trigger their territorial instincts. Cats have scent glands all over their bodies, and by biting your nose, they’re spreading their scent all over you. This helps reassure them that they won’t lose you, and it can give a subtle warning to other cats that you are taken and off-limits for other cats to attach themselves to. 2) Overstimulation Your cat has dozens of sensations coming at them from all directions 24 hours a day, and this can make it easy for them to get overstimulated. When this happens, they may act erratically or act overwhelmed and do things that they normally wouldn’t do like bite your nose. Your cat will give you plenty of warning signs that they’re getting overstimulated when they’re around you, and by stopping the contact, you can potentially stop the biting behavior. You may notice that your cat flicks or swishes their tail, rippling on your cat’s sides, rotating their ears back or to the sides, or tensing up. 3)Cleaning By nature, cats are very clean animals that can spend hours licking, grooming, and cleaning themselves and each other. This is part of the reason why most cat owners don’t bathe their cats on a regular basis, and your cat also has an excellent sense of smell that they use on you. Everything that you eat leaves a scent, and this scent can linger for hours even after you’ve wiped or washed your face. You cat may smell this because they have such an excellent sense of smell and interpret it as dirty. In response, they’ll try to clean your face, and this can result in licks along with smaller bites. 4)Attention-Seeking Behavior When cats are young, they tend to play fight, roughhouse, and bite both with you and with their littermates. Smaller bites are an excellent way to let you know that they would like attention from you right now, and it’s a behavior they learned as a kitten. Kittens can use this when they want to play with you if they don’t have a feline playmate to engage with as well. Most cats will grow out of this behavior, but some cats find that it’s a quick way to get your attention, and so they’ll keep doing it until they have your full attention. READ Twitter

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Can Cats Have Down Syndrome?

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Can Cats Have Down Syndrome? Can cats have Down Syndrome?” to be able to give you a clear and definitive answer. We’ll tell you everything you need to know about Down Syndrome and why cats can or can’t have this condition. Understanding How Down Syndrome Occurs:When all living things get pregnant and give birth, they pass down copies of their genetic material to their offspring, and this genetic material comes in pairs called chromosomes. Every plant and animal species on earth has its own specific number of chromosomes that come in pairs. For example, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, alligators have 16 pairs, cherries have 16 pairs, and cats have 18. As species continue to reproduce and pass their genetic material on, the chromosome pairs don’t change, and they stay the same. Each parent passes on one chromosome per matched pair, and this helps to ensure that their offspring get equal matching sets of chromosomes. Once in a while, something goes wrong when the parents pass the chromosomes down, and the offspring receives three chromosomes instead of the original two. When the offspring gets three chromosomes instead of two, this typically creates some kind of genetic disorder, and it’s called trisomy. Specifically, in humans, when a trisomy happens with chromosome 21, you get the genetic disorder known as Down Syndrome. Conditions That Can be Mistaken for Down Syndrome in Cats For cats, there are several conditions that they can have that may lead you to believe that they have Down Syndrome. These include: 1)Cerebellar Hypoplasia: cerebellar Hypoplasia is a condition where your cat’s cerebellum doesn’t develop as it should, and this can cause several issues with motor control. For example, your cat could have trouble walking or standing, have leg tremors, be generally clumsy, or tend to bob their head when they walk. This condition can be from a birth defect, but it can also be caused by poisoning, bacterial infections, or malnutrition. There is no cure, but this condition usually doesn’t get work as your cat ages either, and it’s relatively easy to manage once you get a diagnosis. 2)Facial Deformities Some cats can be born with facial deformities or a form of dwarfism that makes their faces look odd. For example, some cats are born with too small jawbones, missing nasal bridges, or other issues that make them look like they could have Down Syndrome.However, facial deformities can be caused by genetic conditions as well as inbreeding or accidents. They don’t come from the cat having a form of Down Syndrome. Twitter


AGRIBUSINESS: WHY GOAT MILK FETCHES MORE CASH THAN COW’S. Dairy goat farming is on a steady rise not only in Kenya but throughout the region. Steady rise in demand Unconfirmed projections show a steady increase in demand for goat milk; up from the current 2 per cent in terms of milk consumption. Cow milk is still and will continue to be the most consumed. Studies have shown that goat milk has more beneficial fatty acids. It also has low cholesterol content compared to cow milk. Subsequently people drinking goat milk have lower chances of getting heart problems. In addition, goat milk is relatively rich in potassium and phosphorous. Potassium reduces blood pressure by dilating or relaxing blood vessels further serving to reduce blood pressure. Read: Goat business. AGRIBUSINESS: WHY GOAT MILK FETCHES MORE CASH THAN COW’S. Benefits of keeping goats.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: How sea snakes, surrounded by salt water, quench their thirst.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: How sea snakes, surrounded by salt water, quench their thirst.Water, water everywhere, and not a drop to drink. Such is the lot in life for thirsty sea snakes—and yet they’ve found a way to thrive. Most yellow-bellied sea snakes spend their entire lives at sea. They rarely end up on land and are vulnerable there, since their paddle-shaped tails and keeled undersides make crawling difficult. Armed with potent venom, they drift in a vast territory that encompasses much of the world’s oceans, riding the currents and hunting fish near the sea surface. Like other reptiles, these creatures need to drink water to survive. How does an animal surrounded by saltwater quench its thirst? It used to be thought that these serpents drank from their salty surroundings. “Previous textbook dogma was that sea snakes drank seawater and excreted the excess salts using their sublingual salt glands,” explains Harvey Lillywhite, a biologist at the University of Florida. Recent work has proven that false—and a new study suggests that yellow-bellied sea snakes (Hydrophis platurus) rehydrate at sea by drinking rainwater that collects on the ocean surface. Twitter

Friday, February 15, 2019

AGRIBUSINESS: Deadly skin trade may have prompted Nigeria’s Equine Influenza outbreak.

AGRIBUSINESS: Deadly skin trade may have prompted Nigeria’s Equine Influenza outbreak.Nigeria has declared an outbreak of Equine Influenza with more than 3000 equines infected, with reports from the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) suggesting the outbreak is a symptom of the unregulated global movement and trading of donkeys for their skins. International animal welfare charity The Donkey Sanctuary has warned of a potential disease epidemic in West Africa, following reports from partners in neighbouring countries Mali and Ghana of donkeys showing similar characteristics of the disease, including fever and nasal discharge. The highly contagious disease can affect all equines.

RESEARCH:Group trains pupils in malaria prevention

RESEARCH:Group trains pupils in malaria prevention. A humanitarian organisation, Mace Club of Nigeria, has trained some secondary school pupils in Ogun State on ways to prevent Malaria, as part of its effort to eradicate deadly diseases in the state. The training, held at the Abeokuta Grammar School, Idi-Aba, had in attendance pupils from the six schools that qualified for the grand finale of the organisation’s debate and quiz competition.

Friday, February 8, 2019

RESEARCH : cassava and fertility.

Research shows that eating cassava increases fertility. READ: How to process cassava


RESEARCH: CASSAVA AND FERTILITY.The Cassava plant contains a chemical that causes hyper-ovulation. Cassava works by the same method as prescription fertility drugs, without the side effects. Natural hormones called GnRH released by Cassava fool the brain into thinking there is insufficient estrogen, causing the brain to naturally release more of a hormone called gonadotropin, and dramatically increases the ovulation rate. Cassava is known world wide for its effects on fertility. It helps with increasing the chance of twins, but also with overall fertility. Many women use this supplement to increase fertility even when they’re not trying for twins.

RESEARCH: Newly discovered gene governs need for slumber when sick

RESEARCH : Animal health = human health.RESEARCH: Newly discovered gene governs need for slumber when sick. Humans spend nearly one-third of their lives in slumber, yet sleep is still one of biology's most enduring mysteries. Little is known about what genetic or molecular forces drive the need to sleep -- until now. In a study of over 12,000 lines of fruit flies, researchers have found a single gene, called nemuri, that increases the need for sleep. The NEMURI protein fights germs with its inherent antimicrobial activity and it is secreted by cells in the brain to drive prolonged, deep sleep after an infection.

RESEARCH: Third hand smoke residue exposes children to chemicals.

RESEARCH: Third hand smoke residue exposes children to chemicals.Researchers find that indoor smoking bans may not fully protect children.The harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke have been known for many years. Cigarette and cigar smokers are at significantly higher risk of contracting all sorts of respiratory maladies, and research linking secondhand smoke to cancer goes back nearly three decades. But what about the chemicals that stain the walls, ceilings, carpet and upholstery in rooms in which tobacco has been smoked? What about the lingering nicotine on the fingers of smokers? Is there something dangerous in the residue that lingers long. READ: How smoking affects children. Environmental tobacco smoke and children's health Researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati have found more evidence of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to the residue and particles left behind by tobacco smoke. In "Nicotine on Children's Hands:

RESEARCH:Fasting ramps up human metabolism.

RESEARCH:Fasting ramps up human metabolism. Research uncovers previously unknown effects of fasting, including notably increased metabolic activity and possible anti-aging effects. Fasting may help people lose weight, but new research suggests going without food may also boost human metabolic activity, generate antioxidants, and help reverse some effects of aging. Scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and Kyoto University identified 30 previously-unreported substances whose quantity increases during fasting and indicate a variety of health benefits. The study, published January 29, 2019 in Scientific Reports, presents an analysis of whole human blood, plasma, and red blood cells drawn from four fasting individuals. The researchers monitored changing levels of metabolites -- substances formed during the chemical processes that grant organisms energy and allow them to grow. The results revealed 44 metabolites, including 30 that were previously unrecognized, that increased universally among subjects between 1.5- to 60-fold within just 58 hours of fasting. Research, agribusiness, fasting, lose weight.

Thursday, February 7, 2019


VETERINARY MEDICINE: EQUINE INFLUENZA.Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory virus that can put horses out of work for weeks and potentially cause serious secondary infections. see Twitter

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Racing off in England due to equine flu outbreak.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Racing off in England due to equine flu outbreak.Horse-racing has been cancelled at all British racecourses on Thursday due to an outbreak of equine flu. The British Horseracing Authority announced the decision to cancel meetings at Chelmsford, Doncaster, Ffos Las and Huntingdon due to three animals from a single yard testing positive for the virus. The fact that the cases have been identified in vaccinated horses presents a cause for significant concern over welfare and the potential spread of the disease and the action to cancel racing has been viewed as necessary in order to restrict, as far as possible, the risk of further spread of the disease.


AGRIBUSINESS: HOW TO START CASSAVA FARMING IN NIGERIA. Cassava is a shrub grown in the tropics and subtropics for its underground starchy tuberous roots. Cassava is a very popular product in Africa and can be used for the production of many different kinds of foods and products like fufu, starch, animal feed, sweeteners, alcohol and bio-degradable products. Benefits of Cassava • Cassava brightens and smoothens the skin • It hydrates the skin and is an amazing face mask • Cassava helps in the removal of scars and spots • Cassava helps in hair growth and also contributes in reducing hair loss • Cassava is good for the digestive system . Cassava helps in overcoming headache and fever • It helps in the prevention of cancer.

Wednesday, February 6, 2019

AGRIBUSINESS: Recycled gypsum as an agricultural product.

AGRIBUSINESS: Recycled gypsum as an agricultural product.Gypsum, a source of calcium and sulfur, can benefit crops and soils. When recovered from power plant smokestacks, it brings the additional benefits of recycling.Gypsum is a mineral that is naturally found concentrated in various places and can be mined out of the ground. Warren Dick's research research focuses on gypsum recovered from coal-fired electricity generating power plants. Gypsum that comes from coal plants is called flue-gas desulfurization gypsum, as it comes from the process that 'scrubs' sulfur out of the smoke stacks to reduce air pollution.

Sunday, February 3, 2019

AGRIBUSINESS: How to make beauty products from seaweed.

AGRIBUSINESS: How to make beauty products from seaweed. Agriprenuers have various inspirations for their businesses. For Ms Maryam Abubakar, she had her Eureka moment while on a tea date with a friend in 2017. “As we were chatting, this friend spoke to me about the many opportunities in sea weed value addition. I decided to give it a try,” she tells Smart Harvest. She did research After the meeting, she travelled to Zanzibar to do a factfinding mission on seaweed trade. Her plan was to start exporting this sea vegetable to China, Japan or Korea. “I searched for possible clients in Asia on the app. There were many clients but I could not afford the cost of freight. I needed Sh1 million capital,” she says. When she failed to raise the money, Abubakar decided to go local. Her plan? She would start production of beauty products using the sea vegetable from her house in Mombasa. Seaweed are forms of algae that grow along rocky shorelines around at the Coast, especially, in Kwale County and is a delicacy in Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea.

AGRIBUSINESS: Ghana researchers suggest insect meal as alternative protein.

AGRIBUSINESS: Ghana researchers suggest insect meal as alternative protein.Insect meal may replace soy and fish meal as the cheapest and safest source of protein feed for the country’s livestock. Various researchers around the world have investigated the possibility of using insect meal as a sustainable source of nutrition in livestock feed. Most recently, researchers in Ghana have said they believe using insect meal will be a feasible, safe and cost-effective source of protein for livestock

AGRIBUSINESS: Avian flu returns to commercial poultry in Nigeria, Russia.

AGRIBUSINESS: Avian flu returns to commercial poultry in Nigeria, Russia. Based on official reports, new outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have been confirmed in poultry and ostriches in India, Nigeria, Russia, and South Africa, while a low-pathogenic virus has been detected again in the Dominican Republic. Previous local media reports of new outbreaks of HPAI linked to the H5N1 virus subtype in India have now been confirmed. Two backyard flocks in Bihar state totaling more than 4,000 poultry were affected by these outbreaks in mid-December and early January, according to the report from the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). One of the flocks was located in Mungar — the same district as a previous linked outbreak — and the other was in Banka. That brings the total outbreaks in the state since November last year to three. Africa: Further outbreaks in South Africa’s ostrich industry, Nigerian poultry The H5N8 HPAI virus has been causing sporadic outbreaks of HPAI in commercial ostriches in West Cape Province since June of 2017. There were a further five outbreaks between August and November last year, according to the report of the country’s veterinary service to the OIE. There were a total of 159 cases of the disease among a total of more than 6,500 ostriches at farm in four different regions, including the city of Cape Town. Following a lull, the same HPAI virus subtype has been detected at two chicken farms in the central Nigerian state of Bauchi. The first outbreak in the second week of January was in a flock of 2,000 young pullets following the introduction of new birds, according to the official report from the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. This event was followed the next week in a “backyard” flock of almost 850 mature laying hens. Prior to these outbreaks, the most recent detection of the H5N8 virus in the area was in neighboring Nasawara state in February last year. Low-pathogenic virus detected in Dominican Republic An H5N2 variant of the low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus was detected in the Dominican Republic in November of 2018, according to the latest agriculture ministry report to the OIE. Of a flock of mixed species in the northern state of Puerto Plata, 745 of the birds died, and the rest were destroyed or slaughtered. The last time this virus was reported in the country was in June last year.

Saturday, February 2, 2019

AGRIBUSINESS: Effects of hot weather on heat detection and breeding.

AGRIBUSINESS: Effects of hot weather on heat detection and breeding.While good weather can be of huge benefit for farmers, it can also be a roadblock if it hangs around for too long or is too intense. It can make heat detection and breeding more difficult in myriad ways. Heat stress can affect or hamper hormone production in cattle which can lead to cows or heifers not displaying signs of heat. This is known as silent heats, or subestrus. Specifically, heat stress can cause an increase in cortisol secretion which has been reported to block estradiol and reduce estrus behavior. Bull fertility Heat stress also affects the breeding performance of bulls. While hot weather in general can affect bull fertility (bull testes must be 2-6°C cooler than core body temperature for fertile sperm to be produced) heat stress can be detrimental to semen quality, testicular volume, sexual behavior. This in turn affects conception rates, fertility rates and bull fitness. One thing to bear in mind is that younger bulls are more susceptible to elevated air temperatures. READ: Heat Detection and Timing of Insemination for Cattle. FODDER/ FEED. If your cow isn’t getting enough green grass, this means they might not be getting enough minerals such as phosphorus, or trace elements like copper and cobalt, which all help promote the cow having a strong estrus. Cattle can also suffer from a Vitamin A deficiency after a long drought due to the cow not getting enough beta carotene (which cows convert to Vitamin A) which is usually rich in green grass. These deficiencies can be an issue during drought periods, or during winter, when grass isn’t as green. Drought can compound vitamin A deficiency because plants go dormant early in the year and it’s a long time before animals eat green grass again. Heat Stress In hot climates, or in years where there is abnormally high temperatures, cows can end up miscarrying due to heat stress. In one case, reported , German farmer Phillip Ellerbrock found a 40-45 day old embryo behind a cow.This was after a prolonged period of 35C temperatures. Not only did this happen, but fields of grass and grain were dried up and burned by the sun. There are a number of ways you can prevent and alleviate Heat Stress and its effects on your herd. If they are out on pasture, ensure that they have an area of shade where they can stay cool if they need to. In some hot countries farmers dig cooling ponds.If they are in housing, make sure you have a cooling system to keep the air temperature down.


AGRIBUSINESS: BREEDING SOUNDNESS. How long can I keep a bull, and at what age can a young bull start mating cows? Puberty in bulls occurs when they can produce viable sperm. This happens at approximately 12 months of age, though it can vary in individual bulls several months before or after this age depending on biological type (primarily frame size and potential mature weight), nutrition, and health status. Most bulls have reached puberty when scrotal circumference measures approximately 26 cm. A generally accepted guideline is to purchase/use only yearling bulls that have a minimum 32-cm scrotal circumference. Bulls can remain in service until they are 10 or 12 years of age. However, this is not the norm and usually remain in the herd for 4 to 5 years. Many do not last nearly that long due to hoof problems, structural problems, fertility issues, or injuries. Read: The management factors affecting fertility. Profitability for the cow-calf producer starts with high pregnancy rates and a high percentage of the calves being conceived early in the breeding season. A critical component of reproductive success is having sound, highly fertile bulls. This requires bull(s) that can detect cows in estrus, successfully mount and deliver viable, normal sperm into the reproductive tract of the cow. A proven method to determine the breeding potential of bulls is the Breeding Soundness Evaluation (BSE) system developed by the Society for Theriogenology. The Breeding Soundness Evaluation (BSE) is a relatively quick and economic procedure that can be performed by your veterinarian. It is recommended that all bulls be checked annually, within 60 days of the start of the breeding season. The BSE system is a screening procedure that places bulls into categories of satisfactory, unsatisfactory, or deferred.

AGRIBUSINESS: Factors that affect bull fertility.

AGRIBUSINESS: Factors that affect bull fertility.When it comes to bulls, fertility is of upmost importance as their job is to secure the future of your herd. 1)Body Condition Your bull should have a Body Condition Score (BCS) of 3 or more before being turned out to the cows. As bulls can lose hundreds of pounds of weight during the breeding season it is a bad idea to have them in bad condition at the start of breeding season. This will likely compromise herd fertility and reduce the reproduction rate. Dramatic weight loss leads to lower sperm quality and production. However you need to watch out for overweight bulls too because they can become lazy. READ: Fertility of cows and bulls. 2) Weather Heat stress can have a detrimental effect on sperm motility in Bulls. It also affects fertility in cows. Excessive cold can affect bull fertility too, especially in cases of frostbite. Scrotal frostbite can affect fertility. Usually the way to spot this is inflammation and swelling days after freezing. This inflammation generates heat which affects development of the bull’s sperm and could temporarily - or permanently - sterilize the bull. 3) Disease and infection. Disease and parasite control in bulls is very important. Even if the disease doesn’t directly relate to fertility, it could affect his body condition. If the bull fails to maintain a good body score it could lead to reduced vigor. Infections like foot rot can display itself with a fever. Fever is harmful to a bull’s performance, as the sperm that were forming whilst he was suffering from it will be abnormal, and afterwards, he will have an infertile period of about 60 days. Disease prevention should be treated the same in a bull as with females. New animals should be screened by a vet for possible infectious agents, and only buy bulls from a reputable source with a healthy herd plan. Here are three rules you should follow to avoid disease in cattle. Don’t expose cows to bulls from other herds or vice versa. No leasing or borrowing bulls No grazing in common lands with other herds, good solid fences to keep neighbors out. Bovine Trichomoniasis - This is a venereal disease which leads to repeat breeders, low pregnancy rates and abortions beginning in early pregnancy and continuing right up to the time of calving. There is no treatment for Trichomoniasis, although most cows will self-clear of the disease within 120 days. Bulls spread the disease between cows and any bull found carrying it must be culled. Because of this you should test your bulls annually. 4) Injury Lameness. If a bull is lame he won’t be able to stand up to his task. If he is partly lame his performance will be impaired.


AGRIBUSINESS: COMMON DISEASES OF NEW CALVES. Calves are born with an underdeveloped immune system which makes them prone to infections and diseases than older animals. 1)Johne’s Disease: Caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It is passed on if a calf ingests infected colostrum or infected manure. It then damages the gut wall. Symptom: Calves are occasionally infected at birth when the mother is in advanced stage of the disease. If a newborn becomes infected, signs of this aren’t likely to surface until two or more years later. Because of this, you'll want to be checking out the dam for symptoms instead. The main symptoms are weight loss and scour. Prevention: 1)Remove the calf from the calving pens soon as possible and introduce them to a clean dry and uncontaminated environment. 2)Collect the colostrum yourself and make sure your hands are clean. 3)Only feed colostrum from test negative cows. 2)Calf Pneumonia.Caused by complex interaction between viral and bacterial pathogens, environmental stress factors and the animal’s own resilience to disease.Symptom: 1)Temperature greater than 39.5C. 2) Increased breathing rate and effort. 3)coughing and nasal discharge. The prevention includes the following: 1) Well ventilated facilities reduces the risk of calves developing respiratory infections or pneumonia. Badly ventilated sheds retain too much moisture in the air and let it gather into droplets, and then puddles. These are the perfect breeding ground for harmful bacteria. 2)Keep calves dry and well-bedded. Calves are not born with a winter hair coat so they need that extra layer to help keep them strong and healthy. Additionally they need to be in a clean place so refresh it regularly. 3)Feed enough milk to keep the calf warm, and healthy especially during cold weather. 4)Avoid nose to nose contact, Infectious saliva and moisture from the respiratory tract can cause pneumonia to spread from calf to calf. 5)Keep age groups separated in group housing, older calves will have a more developed immune system. 6)Vaccinate the cow/heifer and the protection is transferred via colostrum. 7)Avoid buying calves that could carry new bugs. 8)Prevent aspiration pneumonia caused by incorrect feeding. 9)Minimize weaning stress by leaving rehousing, tagging and dehorning until later. Treatment is with antibiotics. 3) Bleeding calf syndrome: Caused by antibodies absorbed from this colostrum. These antibodies attack the bone marrow cells in the calf after suckling which almost destroy it completely. This leaves the calf unable to produce red and white blood cells, leaving the calf without a functioning immune system. While Bleeding Calf Syndrome was linked to a Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) vaccine, the exact nature of the connection is unclear. Symptom: .Their bodies can’t create blood clots, which causes the bleeding effect. Prevention: If your cow’s colostrum causes Bleeding Calf Syndrome once, it will always cause it.


AGRIBUSINESS: LIVER FLUKE IN CATTLE. A liver fluke is a parasitic worm that commonly live off of cattle, sheep and other livestock.Cattle can pick them up while out at pasture, and if not treated can drastically affect their performance, and cause liver damage. The disease they cause is called fascioliasis. Cattle typically develop chronic disease and classically show loss of weight, condition and become anaemic. Liver fluke-related disease can become acute and even fatal.However, if the offending liver flukes mature into adult egg-laying parasites, it can lead to severe liver damage depending on the number. Cattle infected with liver fluke are considered to be more susceptible to other infections,that is why it is so important to deal with liver fluke early. HOW TO DEAL WITH LIVER FLUKE 1: IDENTIFY RISK If you are aware of high risk areas for liver fluke, then deal with them as soon as possible. Fence off wet areas, attend to leaky troughs and pipes, drainage or housing early.If you have lost any sheep, investigate this, as this can be an early indication of fluke risk for your cattle. 2: TREAT APPROPRIATELY Cattle cannot pick up liver fluke when they are housed, however if they are not, it has the potential to put their growth rates well below market weight. Correct treatment means using the right product, at the right time, using the correct dose rate and administering it the right way. Never underdose your cattle for liver fluke, and do not assume that one size fits all when you’re measuring doses. Base your measurement off your heaviest animal for a group of cattle. Do not overdose your cattle either as this can encourace resistance to liver fluke treatments. If you have a large variation in weights, group them to ensure an accurate dose rate. If the treatment comes in the form of an injection, ensure it goes under the skin and not into the muscle. 3: AVOID RESISTANCE Over-reliance or overdosing on a flukicide can lead to drug resistance growing in liver fluke.It is important that you have an effective plan for cattle that reduces the risk of resistance spreading. Treatment: Among the products that kill liver flukes are Ivomec® Plus (Merial); Valbazen® (Pfizer) and Noromectin® PLUS (Norbrook),triclobendazole, nitroxynil 34% and 3 Levanor plus.

AGRIBUSINESS: Why a new calf needs a clean shed.

AGRIBUSINESS: Why a new calf needs a tidy shed.The most efficient cattle operations never consider tidy housing a waste of time. Washing, tidying and maintaining a hygienic cattle shed has financial, health and time benefits down the line. Here are the reasons it is particularly important for calves to have a tidy shed.1)Calves have a poor immune system If your shed is covered in harmful bacteria then your calves are at risk from the moment they hit the ground. Minimize this risk by power washing your byre before the calving season starts and by power washing calving pens once a cow and calf leaves. Calves are particularly vulnerable at birth because they haven't got a well developed immune system yet.There is no vaccine to combat calf-prone viruses like cryptosporidium so keeping the calving box hygienic and disinfected is key to avoid it and other diseases from building up. 2) Better ventilation means less chance of pneumonia. This has more to do with planning (and altering) your shed design, but better ventilation is important at calving time too. In well-ventilated sheds, animals are shown by research to perform better, as they are less likely to develop respiratory infections or pneumonia. Badly ventilated sheds retain too much moisture in the air which then promotes harmful bacteria growth. 3)Calves spend 80% of their time lying down Because of this, and their poor immune system, it is vital that you refresh their straw bedding often before it gets too dirty. This has the added benefit of keeping them warm. Certain minerals are harmful to calves Most farmers aren’t calving all year around, so calving pens will be empty for a time. This does not mean you can store things there when they are. Calving boxes should be left clean and dry during the summer, and shouldn’t be used to store minerals that could be potentially harmful to calves

Thursday, January 31, 2019

AGRIBUSINESS:Clean home with bio-enzymes from vegetables, fruits and kitchen waste.

AGRIBUSINESS:Clean home with bio-enzymes from vegetables, fruits and kitchen waste.You can now use bio-enzymes derived from the skin of vegetables and fruits to keep things clean at home, purify water and simultaneously help protecting environment.Bengaluru-based organization ‘Soil and Soul’ has been teaching and encouraging people to prepare bio-enzymes at their homes. Preeti Rao from ‘Soil and Soul’ told PTI that she started composting kitchen waste, growing veggies and then discovered citrus peels can’t be composted, so figured out a way of creating bio-enzymes from them. “We talk about cleaning floor, purifying water and eliminating germs but killing all kinds of microbes is not a good idea. We break the food cycle if we kill all microbes,” she said. “I use bio-enzymes to clean chimneys, the kitchen slab, the toilets ? they don’t kill germs, they eat them up and also protect the food cycle. These are basic we learnt in school,” she said. She said one litre of water mixed with 300 grams of unused vegetables and 100 grams jaggery could give housekeepers their first bio-enzyme in 90 days. And the second time, it could be prepared within one month by using the existing enzymes.