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Friday, December 6, 2019

Lagos meat reforms.

The Lagos State Government is poised to improve the red meat value by implementing a 3-pronged strategy called A.T.M. This refers to specific interventions in various sectors of the value chain to ensure only wholesome beef is sold to the populace

Lagos Govt Inaugurates Reform To End Sales Of Unwholesome Red Meat With A.T.M Strategy.

The Lagos Govt Inaugurates Reform To End Sales Of Unwholesome Red Meat With A.T.M Strategy. This is a three-pronged approach to sanitize the red meat value chain.

 The purpose is to ensure that only wholesome beef is available to the populace. Prince Gbolahan Lawal, State Commissioner for Agriculture, said at the occasion that the state government was committed to sanitizing the value chain.

 Lawal, flagging off the pilot scheme of the reform at Ita Faji Market in Lagos Island, noted that it would be done by embarking on three-pronged approach with the acronym A.T.M: Abattoir, Transportation and Market.

 The Honorable commissioner also stated that the reform would not only ensure the consumption of
wholesome meat by the people, but it would also facilitate export of red meat to other countries.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Lagos set to sanitize the red meat value chain.(Lagos meat reform)

The Lagos State Government is poised to improve the red meat value by implementing a 3-pronged strategy called A.T.M. This refers to specific interventions in various sectors of the value chain to ensure only wholesome beef is sold to the populace. The A=abattoir, where its mandatory to get a certificate of fitness and wholesomeness accompanied with a meat receipt for every carcass. The registered abattoirs are graded into 3 categories:the A,B and C. The A grade is the fully mechanized line, the B is the semi mechanized line while the C is the conventional floor slaughtering. The T= transportation: only refrigerated Eko meat vans are authorized to move carcasses to markets. This is ensure that carcasses get to markets in hygienic conditions. The M= market, where beef is sold in clean hygienic markets with properly kitted butchers. The aim of the project is to 1)Promote the red meat value chain by providing wholesome and hygienically processed beef for the populace. 2)To boost beef processing to international standards to facilitate export opportunities and foreign investment into the value chain. The purpose is to ensure food safety and improve the health of the populace by ensuring only certified animals are slaughtered to make wholesome beef available in our markets. Lagos set to sanitize the red meat value chain.(Lagos meat reform) The implementation of the strategies will be grouped as immediate, intermediate and long term. Lagos wants to redefine the red meat value chain by standardizing its slaughtering, processing and marketing to ensure wholesome beef is available and that products are traceable.Linking of approved slaughter houses and abattoirs to the markets being supplied through the Eko refrigerated meat vans. Implementation: 1) Abattoirs supplying various markets are identified and classified using the meat vans. 2) Butchers in such abattoirs are identified, linked to the market they supply using a color tag/code(meat receipt). 3)Butchers are issued veterinary meat hygiene certificate for health and wholesomeness after inspection of carcass by veterinary officers. 4) Butchers are given certificates with meat receipts for their respective vendors. 5) The butchers / vendors with certificates and receipt load products into coded Eko refrigerated meat vans en route to specified markets.

Friday, October 25, 2019


ECHBEE FOODS; Agribusiness. Echbee foods, a subsidiary of Echbee vet ventures dealers of hygienically packaged beef, mutton,lamb,,eggs and farm fresh vegetables. The vegetables are fresh and clean ,look The animals are carefully selected and slaughtered in an hygienic environment to ensure food. AGRO-VETERINARY NIGERIA : Agribusiness, Agriculture,Cassava Flakes And Veterinary Medicine.: AGRIBUSINESS: ECHBEE FOODS.

Sunday, February 17, 2019

RESEARCH: Chronic kidney disease is on the rise linked to climate change .

RESEARCH: Chronic kidney disease is on the rise linked to climate change .Our kidneys might be vulnerable to the more frequent extreme heat brought on by global warming.In its early stages, chronic kidney disease can lurk silently in the body, causing no symptoms at all. Eventually, as these vital organs fail, the hands and feet start to puff up, and sufferers feel nauseated, achy, and itchy. When the disease reaches its last stage, the kidneys fail and you can die. Around 2000, health officials noticed that chronic kidney disease was on the rise in Central America. An epidemic seemed to be raging among farm workers who toiled in sugarcane fields on the Pacific Coast in El Salvador and Costa Rica — one of the hottest areas in the region. To date, more than 20,000 people have died in the epidemic, and thousands of others have had to go on kidney dialysis to survive. Researchers are now coming together around a hypothesis about what’s driving a little-appreciated epidemic, known as “Mesoamerican nephropathy.” more

Saturday, February 16, 2019


VETERINARY MEDICINE::10 MOST POPULAR WRINKLY DOGS THAT WILL BRING ADORABLE CUTENESS TO YOUR LIFE. The Chinese Shar Pei takes the first spot in any list of the wrinkly canine breeds. Aside from having the most wrinkles, what makes them even more charming is the fact that they carry their wrinkles with utmost pride. The Chinese Shar Pei is a small and dog-shaped bear. These Chinese doggies are also very serious, loving, and loyal. If you wish to hold this furry friend in your arms all the time, it is recommended that you train your pet from a very young age. This is because these canines respect and appreciate their personal space. But, in spite of their gentle and docile appearance, don’t be surprised if your Shar Pei becomes very protective. They also need specific care since their skin is extremely delicate and is prone to bacteria. This is because moisture tends to accumulate in the areas in between their wrinkles.The Chinese Shar Pei is renowned worldwide for their expressive faces and superb wrinkles and their wonderful tongues of blue-black color. Pug takes the biscuit as far as cute is concerned. They have amusing scrunched up foreheads and faces that make them look like they are very worried tiny canines. But, for all you know, these funny looking small wrinkly dogs might just be laughing their heads off at you. Pugs are popular options for people living in apartments since they cannot handle lots of exercise because of their flat faces’ shape. Similar to the English and French Bulldogs, Pugs are brachycephalic canines. In turn, it means that owners should keep a close eye on the diet and weight of their pet throughout their lives. If you carefully look after the special needs of Pugs, caring for them is very easy. Their short coat sheds yet they have modest grooming requirements. Due to their big love for people, you also have to be careful in getting your Pug used to being alone so that he will not develop too much anxiety if left behind.continue Twitter

Veterinary Medicine: 9 Tips To Make Your Dog’s Fur Beautiful.

Veterinary Medicine: 9 Tips To Make Your Dog’s Fur Beautiful.Taking care of your dog’s coat is just as important as regular trips to the vet. Read on for our top 9 tips for a shiny, healthy and beautiful dog’s fur. A Good Brushing Goes a Long Way Your dog’s healthy coat starts with regular brushing with a quality brush.Weekly brushing keeps your dog’s hair clean and dust-free while keeping shedding under control. For longer hair, consider more frequent brushing to keep tangles and mats at bay.Look for wood handles and other natural products to avoid exposing your dog to harsh chemicals and synthetic fibers that can cause allergic reactions. If you are, by any chance, looking to get a dog, be sure to learn about the breed you’re interested in seeing how much they shed, how often regular maintenance will be needed in case you’re concerned about how much time you might need to spend grooming your dog. Continue.


               How to stop your cat from biting.

Depending on why your cat is biting, there are several things that you can do to help curtail this unwanted behavior. However, consistency is key, and you can’t view biting as cute one time, and they reprimand your cat the next time they bite you because you send mixed signals that’ll confuse your cat.

 As with any unwanted behavior from your pets, training your cat to stop biting follows several basic principals. These are the same principals that you follow for any pet that has bad habits that you’re trying to break.


 1)Reward wanted or good behavior and punish bad or unwanted behavior. When you reward or punish your cat’s behavior, it should be right after your cat displays the behavior in question. This will help your cat make the connection between the behavior and the reward or punishment.Consistency is key to your success or failure during the training process. Keeping these basic but essential principals in mind, you’ll have to know the specific ways to approach your cat’s biting behavior. The approaches depend on the root cause of your cat’s biting problem, so you want an idea of why your cat is biting so you can use the correct approach.

  2)For dominance biting: You have to show your cat that you are in charge and that you are the dominant one. To do this, get loud when your cat bites you because they’re responsive to tone and volume. If it’s a male cat that isn’t neutered, you may want to consider neutering them. Male cats tend to calm down after they have this procedure, and they may stop biting.

 3)Start using a dominance item to curb their behavior. An example would be a rolled newspaper, and all you have to do is lightly tap them on the head when they bite you because they’ll eventually respond to just the site of it.

Cats love attention and some just want to get attention by biting, if this is the case then follow these steps.
1) Be very cautious and selective with your negative reinforcement. Too much negative reinforcement will make your cat afraid to try and tell you when they need something.

2)Try to establish a less painful form of communication with your cat. Do whatever your cat wants you to do when they purr or rub against your leg, and don’t do it if they bite. Don’t be afraid to ignore your cat after the bite you. Cats love to play, and they’ll quickly start to reconsider their biting behavior if they find that it leads to getting ignored.

No matter why your cat is biting you, you want to learn their body language as they’re most likely giving you several clues that they’re about to bite you before they actually do it.

 For example, if your cat bites you after 10 minutes of petting them, cut the petting time down to around five or eight minutes and stop.

 When your cat starts using less painful ways to tell you that they need something or when they stop biting altogether, reward them. Praise, treats, and petting is all excellent positive reinforcement tactics that you can use. This training is to be started early,see how...

Why Does My Cat Bite My Nose?

                    Why Does My Cat Bite My Nose?

Any cat parent will tell you that we’re passionate about our felines, but we may not be so passionate about some of the behaviors that they see fit to bestow on us. For the most part, kitten bites don’t hurt, but that can change as your cat gets older and starts to bite harder. Reasons Your Cat Could Bite Your Nose There are dozens of reasons why your cat could be biting your nose, and it may be slightly difficult to narrow it down to just one source.

 However, the following reasons will give you a good idea on why your cat is doing this, and you can start correcting the problem so you and your cat can coexist happily and peacefully.

 1)Territorial Behavior Cats can be notoriously territorial, and this extends to their humans as well as their home. If you’ve added another cat to the family recently or if you’ve been around other cats outside of the home, your cat will be able to smell these other cats, and it can trigger their territorial instincts.
 Cats have scent glands all over their bodies, and by biting your nose, they’re spreading their scent all over you. This helps reassure them that they won’t lose you, and it can give a subtle warning to other cats that you are taken and off-limits for other cats .

 2) Overstimulation Your cat has dozens of sensations coming at them from all directions 24 hours a day, and this can make it easy for them to get overstimulated. When this happens, they may act erratically or act overwhelmed and do things that they normally wouldn’t do like bite your nose.

Your cat will give you plenty of warning signs that they’re getting overstimulated when they’re around you, and by stopping the contact, you can potentially stop the biting behavior. You may notice that your cat flicks or swishes their tail, rippling on your cat’s sides, rotating their ears back or to the sides, or tensing up.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Can Cats Have Down Syndrome?

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Can Cats Have Down Syndrome? Can cats have Down Syndrome?” to be able to give you a clear and definitive answer. We’ll tell you everything you need to know about Down Syndrome and why cats can or can’t have this condition. Understanding How Down Syndrome Occurs:When all living things get pregnant and give birth, they pass down copies of their genetic material to their offspring, and this genetic material comes in pairs called chromosomes. Every plant and animal species on earth has its own specific number of chromosomes that come in pairs. For example, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, alligators have 16 pairs, cherries have 16 pairs, and cats have 18. As species continue to reproduce and pass their genetic material on, the chromosome pairs don’t change, and they stay the same. Each parent passes on one chromosome per matched pair, and this helps to ensure that their offspring get equal matching sets of chromosomes. Once in a while, something goes wrong when the parents pass the chromosomes down, and the offspring receives three chromosomes instead of the original two. When the offspring gets three chromosomes instead of two, this typically creates some kind of genetic disorder, and it’s called trisomy. Specifically, in humans, when a trisomy happens with chromosome 21, you get the genetic disorder known as Down Syndrome. Conditions That Can be Mistaken for Down Syndrome in Cats For cats, there are several conditions that they can have that may lead you to believe that they have Down Syndrome. These include: 1)Cerebellar Hypoplasia: cerebellar Hypoplasia is a condition where your cat’s cerebellum doesn’t develop as it should, and this can cause several issues with motor control. For example, your cat could have trouble walking or standing, have leg tremors, be generally clumsy, or tend to bob their head when they walk. This condition can be from a birth defect, but it can also be caused by poisoning, bacterial infections, or malnutrition. There is no cure, but this condition usually doesn’t get work as your cat ages either, and it’s relatively easy to manage once you get a diagnosis. 2)Facial Deformities Some cats can be born with facial deformities or a form of dwarfism that makes their faces look odd. For example, some cats are born with too small jawbones, missing nasal bridges, or other issues that make them look like they could have Down Syndrome.However, facial deformities can be caused by genetic conditions as well as inbreeding or accidents. They don’t come from the cat having a form of Down Syndrome. Twitter


AGRIBUSINESS: WHY GOAT MILK FETCHES MORE CASH THAN COW’S. Dairy goat farming is on a steady rise not only in Kenya but throughout the region. Steady rise in demand Unconfirmed projections show a steady increase in demand for goat milk; up from the current 2 per cent in terms of milk consumption. Cow milk is still and will continue to be the most consumed. Studies have shown that goat milk has more beneficial fatty acids. It also has low cholesterol content compared to cow milk. Subsequently people drinking goat milk have lower chances of getting heart problems. In addition, goat milk is relatively rich in potassium and phosphorous. Potassium reduces blood pressure by dilating or relaxing blood vessels further serving to reduce blood pressure. Read: Goat business. AGRIBUSINESS: WHY GOAT MILK FETCHES MORE CASH THAN COW’S. Benefits of keeping goats.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: How sea snakes, surrounded by salt water, quench their thirst.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: How sea snakes, surrounded by salt water, quench their thirst.Water, water everywhere, and not a drop to drink. Such is the lot in life for thirsty sea snakes—and yet they’ve found a way to thrive. Most yellow-bellied sea snakes spend their entire lives at sea. They rarely end up on land and are vulnerable there, since their paddle-shaped tails and keeled undersides make crawling difficult. Armed with potent venom, they drift in a vast territory that encompasses much of the world’s oceans, riding the currents and hunting fish near the sea surface. Like other reptiles, these creatures need to drink water to survive. How does an animal surrounded by saltwater quench its thirst? It used to be thought that these serpents drank from their salty surroundings. “Previous textbook dogma was that sea snakes drank seawater and excreted the excess salts using their sublingual salt glands,” explains Harvey Lillywhite, a biologist at the University of Florida. Recent work has proven that false—and a new study suggests that yellow-bellied sea snakes (Hydrophis platurus) rehydrate at sea by drinking rainwater that collects on the ocean surface. Twitter

Friday, February 15, 2019

AGRIBUSINESS: Deadly skin trade may have prompted Nigeria’s Equine Influenza outbreak.

AGRIBUSINESS: Deadly skin trade may have prompted Nigeria’s Equine Influenza outbreak.Nigeria has declared an outbreak of Equine Influenza with more than 3000 equines infected, with reports from the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) suggesting the outbreak is a symptom of the unregulated global movement and trading of donkeys for their skins. International animal welfare charity The Donkey Sanctuary has warned of a potential disease epidemic in West Africa, following reports from partners in neighbouring countries Mali and Ghana of donkeys showing similar characteristics of the disease, including fever and nasal discharge. The highly contagious disease can affect all equines.

RESEARCH:Group trains pupils in malaria prevention

RESEARCH:Group trains pupils in malaria prevention. A humanitarian organisation, Mace Club of Nigeria, has trained some secondary school pupils in Ogun State on ways to prevent Malaria, as part of its effort to eradicate deadly diseases in the state. The training, held at the Abeokuta Grammar School, Idi-Aba, had in attendance pupils from the six schools that qualified for the grand finale of the organisation’s debate and quiz competition.

Friday, February 8, 2019

RESEARCH : cassava and fertility.

Research shows that eating cassava increases fertility. READ: How to process cassava


RESEARCH: CASSAVA AND FERTILITY.The Cassava plant contains a chemical that causes hyper-ovulation. Cassava works by the same method as prescription fertility drugs, without the side effects. Natural hormones called GnRH released by Cassava fool the brain into thinking there is insufficient estrogen, causing the brain to naturally release more of a hormone called gonadotropin, and dramatically increases the ovulation rate. Cassava is known world wide for its effects on fertility. It helps with increasing the chance of twins, but also with overall fertility. Many women use this supplement to increase fertility even when they’re not trying for twins.

RESEARCH: Newly discovered gene governs need for slumber when sick

RESEARCH : Animal health = human health.RESEARCH: Newly discovered gene governs need for slumber when sick. Humans spend nearly one-third of their lives in slumber, yet sleep is still one of biology's most enduring mysteries. Little is known about what genetic or molecular forces drive the need to sleep -- until now. In a study of over 12,000 lines of fruit flies, researchers have found a single gene, called nemuri, that increases the need for sleep. The NEMURI protein fights germs with its inherent antimicrobial activity and it is secreted by cells in the brain to drive prolonged, deep sleep after an infection.

RESEARCH: Third hand smoke residue exposes children to chemicals.

RESEARCH: Third hand smoke residue exposes children to chemicals.Researchers find that indoor smoking bans may not fully protect children.The harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke have been known for many years. Cigarette and cigar smokers are at significantly higher risk of contracting all sorts of respiratory maladies, and research linking secondhand smoke to cancer goes back nearly three decades. But what about the chemicals that stain the walls, ceilings, carpet and upholstery in rooms in which tobacco has been smoked? What about the lingering nicotine on the fingers of smokers? Is there something dangerous in the residue that lingers long. READ: How smoking affects children. Environmental tobacco smoke and children's health Researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati have found more evidence of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to the residue and particles left behind by tobacco smoke. In "Nicotine on Children's Hands:

RESEARCH:Fasting ramps up human metabolism.

RESEARCH:Fasting ramps up human metabolism. Research uncovers previously unknown effects of fasting, including notably increased metabolic activity and possible anti-aging effects. Fasting may help people lose weight, but new research suggests going without food may also boost human metabolic activity, generate antioxidants, and help reverse some effects of aging. Scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and Kyoto University identified 30 previously-unreported substances whose quantity increases during fasting and indicate a variety of health benefits. The study, published January 29, 2019 in Scientific Reports, presents an analysis of whole human blood, plasma, and red blood cells drawn from four fasting individuals. The researchers monitored changing levels of metabolites -- substances formed during the chemical processes that grant organisms energy and allow them to grow. The results revealed 44 metabolites, including 30 that were previously unrecognized, that increased universally among subjects between 1.5- to 60-fold within just 58 hours of fasting. Research, agribusiness, fasting, lose weight.

Thursday, February 7, 2019


VETERINARY MEDICINE: EQUINE INFLUENZA.Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory virus that can put horses out of work for weeks and potentially cause serious secondary infections. see Twitter

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Racing off in England due to equine flu outbreak.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Racing off in England due to equine flu outbreak.Horse-racing has been cancelled at all British racecourses on Thursday due to an outbreak of equine flu. The British Horseracing Authority announced the decision to cancel meetings at Chelmsford, Doncaster, Ffos Las and Huntingdon due to three animals from a single yard testing positive for the virus. The fact that the cases have been identified in vaccinated horses presents a cause for significant concern over welfare and the potential spread of the disease and the action to cancel racing has been viewed as necessary in order to restrict, as far as possible, the risk of further spread of the disease.


AGRIBUSINESS: HOW TO START CASSAVA FARMING IN NIGERIA. Cassava is a shrub grown in the tropics and subtropics for its underground starchy tuberous roots. Cassava is a very popular product in Africa and can be used for the production of many different kinds of foods and products like fufu, starch, animal feed, sweeteners, alcohol and bio-degradable products. Benefits of Cassava • Cassava brightens and smoothens the skin • It hydrates the skin and is an amazing face mask • Cassava helps in the removal of scars and spots • Cassava helps in hair growth and also contributes in reducing hair loss • Cassava is good for the digestive system . Cassava helps in overcoming headache and fever • It helps in the prevention of cancer.

Wednesday, February 6, 2019

AGRIBUSINESS: Recycled gypsum as an agricultural product.

AGRIBUSINESS: Recycled gypsum as an agricultural product.Gypsum, a source of calcium and sulfur, can benefit crops and soils. When recovered from power plant smokestacks, it brings the additional benefits of recycling.Gypsum is a mineral that is naturally found concentrated in various places and can be mined out of the ground. Warren Dick's research research focuses on gypsum recovered from coal-fired electricity generating power plants. Gypsum that comes from coal plants is called flue-gas desulfurization gypsum, as it comes from the process that 'scrubs' sulfur out of the smoke stacks to reduce air pollution.

Sunday, February 3, 2019

AGRIBUSINESS: How to make beauty products from seaweed.

AGRIBUSINESS: How to make beauty products from seaweed. Agriprenuers have various inspirations for their businesses. For Ms Maryam Abubakar, she had her Eureka moment while on a tea date with a friend in 2017. “As we were chatting, this friend spoke to me about the many opportunities in sea weed value addition. I decided to give it a try,” she tells Smart Harvest. She did research After the meeting, she travelled to Zanzibar to do a factfinding mission on seaweed trade. Her plan was to start exporting this sea vegetable to China, Japan or Korea. “I searched for possible clients in Asia on the app. There were many clients but I could not afford the cost of freight. I needed Sh1 million capital,” she says. When she failed to raise the money, Abubakar decided to go local. Her plan? She would start production of beauty products using the sea vegetable from her house in Mombasa. Seaweed are forms of algae that grow along rocky shorelines around at the Coast, especially, in Kwale County and is a delicacy in Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea.

AGRIBUSINESS: Ghana researchers suggest insect meal as alternative protein.

AGRIBUSINESS: Ghana researchers suggest insect meal as alternative protein.Insect meal may replace soy and fish meal as the cheapest and safest source of protein feed for the country’s livestock. Various researchers around the world have investigated the possibility of using insect meal as a sustainable source of nutrition in livestock feed. Most recently, researchers in Ghana have said they believe using insect meal will be a feasible, safe and cost-effective source of protein for livestock

AGRIBUSINESS: Avian flu returns to commercial poultry in Nigeria, Russia.

AGRIBUSINESS: Avian flu returns to commercial poultry in Nigeria, Russia. Based on official reports, new outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have been confirmed in poultry and ostriches in India, Nigeria, Russia, and South Africa, while a low-pathogenic virus has been detected again in the Dominican Republic. Previous local media reports of new outbreaks of HPAI linked to the H5N1 virus subtype in India have now been confirmed. Two backyard flocks in Bihar state totaling more than 4,000 poultry were affected by these outbreaks in mid-December and early January, according to the report from the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). One of the flocks was located in Mungar — the same district as a previous linked outbreak — and the other was in Banka. That brings the total outbreaks in the state since November last year to three. Africa: Further outbreaks in South Africa’s ostrich industry, Nigerian poultry The H5N8 HPAI virus has been causing sporadic outbreaks of HPAI in commercial ostriches in West Cape Province since June of 2017. There were a further five outbreaks between August and November last year, according to the report of the country’s veterinary service to the OIE. There were a total of 159 cases of the disease among a total of more than 6,500 ostriches at farm in four different regions, including the city of Cape Town. Following a lull, the same HPAI virus subtype has been detected at two chicken farms in the central Nigerian state of Bauchi. The first outbreak in the second week of January was in a flock of 2,000 young pullets following the introduction of new birds, according to the official report from the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. This event was followed the next week in a “backyard” flock of almost 850 mature laying hens. Prior to these outbreaks, the most recent detection of the H5N8 virus in the area was in neighboring Nasawara state in February last year. Low-pathogenic virus detected in Dominican Republic An H5N2 variant of the low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus was detected in the Dominican Republic in November of 2018, according to the latest agriculture ministry report to the OIE. Of a flock of mixed species in the northern state of Puerto Plata, 745 of the birds died, and the rest were destroyed or slaughtered. The last time this virus was reported in the country was in June last year.

Saturday, February 2, 2019

AGRIBUSINESS: Effects of hot weather on heat detection and breeding.

AGRIBUSINESS: Effects of hot weather on heat detection and breeding.While good weather can be of huge benefit for farmers, it can also be a roadblock if it hangs around for too long or is too intense. It can make heat detection and breeding more difficult in myriad ways. Heat stress can affect or hamper hormone production in cattle which can lead to cows or heifers not displaying signs of heat. This is known as silent heats, or subestrus. Specifically, heat stress can cause an increase in cortisol secretion which has been reported to block estradiol and reduce estrus behavior. Bull fertility Heat stress also affects the breeding performance of bulls. While hot weather in general can affect bull fertility (bull testes must be 2-6°C cooler than core body temperature for fertile sperm to be produced) heat stress can be detrimental to semen quality, testicular volume, sexual behavior. This in turn affects conception rates, fertility rates and bull fitness. One thing to bear in mind is that younger bulls are more susceptible to elevated air temperatures. READ: Heat Detection and Timing of Insemination for Cattle. FODDER/ FEED. If your cow isn’t getting enough green grass, this means they might not be getting enough minerals such as phosphorus, or trace elements like copper and cobalt, which all help promote the cow having a strong estrus. Cattle can also suffer from a Vitamin A deficiency after a long drought due to the cow not getting enough beta carotene (which cows convert to Vitamin A) which is usually rich in green grass. These deficiencies can be an issue during drought periods, or during winter, when grass isn’t as green. Drought can compound vitamin A deficiency because plants go dormant early in the year and it’s a long time before animals eat green grass again. Heat Stress In hot climates, or in years where there is abnormally high temperatures, cows can end up miscarrying due to heat stress. In one case, reported , German farmer Phillip Ellerbrock found a 40-45 day old embryo behind a cow.This was after a prolonged period of 35C temperatures. Not only did this happen, but fields of grass and grain were dried up and burned by the sun. There are a number of ways you can prevent and alleviate Heat Stress and its effects on your herd. If they are out on pasture, ensure that they have an area of shade where they can stay cool if they need to. In some hot countries farmers dig cooling ponds.If they are in housing, make sure you have a cooling system to keep the air temperature down.



 How long can I keep a bull, and at what age can a young bull start mating cows?
 Puberty in bulls occurs when they can produce viable sperm. This happens at approximately 12 months of age, though it can vary in individual bulls several months before or after this age depending on biological type (primarily frame size and potential mature weight), nutrition, and health status.

The Importance of the Breeding Soundness Exam circumference measures approximately 26 cm. A generally accepted guideline is to purchase/use only yearling bulls that have a minimum 32-cm scrotal circumference.

  Bulls can remain in service until they are 10 or 12 years of age. However, this is not the norm and usually remain in the herd for 4 to 5 years. Many do not last nearly that long due to hoof problems, structural problems, fertility issues, or injuries.

 Read: The management factors affecting fertility.

AGRIBUSINESS: Factors that affect bull fertility.

AGRIBUSINESS: Factors that affect bull fertility.When it comes to bulls, fertility is of upmost importance as their job is to secure the future of your herd. 1)Body Condition Your bull should have a Body Condition Score (BCS) of 3 or more before being turned out to the cows. As bulls can lose hundreds of pounds of weight during the breeding season it is a bad idea to have them in bad condition at the start of breeding season. This will likely compromise herd fertility and reduce the reproduction rate. Dramatic weight loss leads to lower sperm quality and production. However you need to watch out for overweight bulls too because they can become lazy. READ: Fertility of cows and bulls. 2) Weather Heat stress can have a detrimental effect on sperm motility in Bulls. It also affects fertility in cows. Excessive cold can affect bull fertility too, especially in cases of frostbite. Scrotal frostbite can affect fertility. Usually the way to spot this is inflammation and swelling days after freezing. This inflammation generates heat which affects development of the bull’s sperm and could temporarily - or permanently - sterilize the bull. 3) Disease and infection. Disease and parasite control in bulls is very important. Even if the disease doesn’t directly relate to fertility, it could affect his body condition. If the bull fails to maintain a good body score it could lead to reduced vigor. Infections like foot rot can display itself with a fever. Fever is harmful to a bull’s performance, as the sperm that were forming whilst he was suffering from it will be abnormal, and afterwards, he will have an infertile period of about 60 days. Disease prevention should be treated the same in a bull as with females. New animals should be screened by a vet for possible infectious agents, and only buy bulls from a reputable source with a healthy herd plan. Here are three rules you should follow to avoid disease in cattle. Don’t expose cows to bulls from other herds or vice versa. No leasing or borrowing bulls No grazing in common lands with other herds, good solid fences to keep neighbors out. Bovine Trichomoniasis - This is a venereal disease which leads to repeat breeders, low pregnancy rates and abortions beginning in early pregnancy and continuing right up to the time of calving. There is no treatment for Trichomoniasis, although most cows will self-clear of the disease within 120 days. Bulls spread the disease between cows and any bull found carrying it must be culled. Because of this you should test your bulls annually. 4) Injury Lameness. If a bull is lame he won’t be able to stand up to his task. If he is partly lame his performance will be impaired.



 Calves are born with an underdeveloped immune system which makes them prone to infections and diseases than older animals.

 1)Johne’s Disease: Caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium avium subspecies para tuberculosis. It is passed on if a calf ingests infected colostrum or infected manure. It then damages the gut wall. 

Symptom: Calves are occasionally infected at birth when the mother is in advanced stage of the disease. If a newborn becomes infected, signs of this aren’t likely to surface until two or more years later. Because of this, you'll want to be checking out the dam for symptoms instead.
The main symptoms are weight loss and scour.

1)Remove the calf from the calving pens soon as possible and introduce them to a clean dry and uncontaminated environment.

 2)Collect the colostrum yourself and make sure your hands are clean.

 3)Only feed colostrum from test negative cows.

2 )Calf Pneumonia: caused by complex interaction between viral and bacterial pathogens, environmental stress factors and the animal’s own resilience to disease.
Symptom: 1)Temperature greater than 39.5C.

 2) Increased breathing rate and effort.

3)coughing and nasal discharge.

The prevention includes the following:

1) Well ventilated facilities reduces the risk of calves developing respiratory infections or pneumonia. Badly ventilated sheds retain too much moisture in the air and let it gather into droplets, and then puddles. These are the perfect breeding ground for harmful bacteria.

 2)Keep calves dry and well-bedded. Calves are not born with a winter hair coat so they need that extra layer to help keep them strong and healthy. Additionally they need to be in a clean place so refresh it regularly.

 3)Feed enough milk to keep the calf warm, and healthy especially during cold weather.

4)Avoid nose to nose contact, Infectious saliva and moisture from the respiratory tract can cause pneumonia to spread from calf to calf.

 5)Keep age groups separated in group housing, older calves will have a more developed immune system.

6)Vaccinate the cow/heifer and the protection is transferred via colostrum.

 7)Avoid buying calves that could carry new bugs

. 8)Prevent aspiration pneumonia caused by incorrect feeding.

 9)Minimize weaning stress by leaving rehousing, tagging and dehorning until later.

 Treatment is with antibiotics.


AGRIBUSINESS: LIVER FLUKE IN CATTLE. A liver fluke is a parasitic worm that commonly live off of cattle, sheep and other livestock.Cattle can pick them up while out at pasture, and if not treated can drastically affect their performance, and cause liver damage. The disease they cause is called fascioliasis. Cattle typically develop chronic disease and classically show loss of weight, condition and become anaemic. Liver fluke-related disease can become acute and even fatal.However, if the offending liver flukes mature into adult egg-laying parasites, it can lead to severe liver damage depending on the number. Cattle infected with liver fluke are considered to be more susceptible to other infections,that is why it is so important to deal with liver fluke early. HOW TO DEAL WITH LIVER FLUKE 1: IDENTIFY RISK If you are aware of high risk areas for liver fluke, then deal with them as soon as possible. Fence off wet areas, attend to leaky troughs and pipes, drainage or housing early.If you have lost any sheep, investigate this, as this can be an early indication of fluke risk for your cattle. 2: TREAT APPROPRIATELY Cattle cannot pick up liver fluke when they are housed, however if they are not, it has the potential to put their growth rates well below market weight. Correct treatment means using the right product, at the right time, using the correct dose rate and administering it the right way. Never underdose your cattle for liver fluke, and do not assume that one size fits all when you’re measuring doses. Base your measurement off your heaviest animal for a group of cattle. Do not overdose your cattle either as this can encourace resistance to liver fluke treatments. If you have a large variation in weights, group them to ensure an accurate dose rate. If the treatment comes in the form of an injection, ensure it goes under the skin and not into the muscle. 3: AVOID RESISTANCE Over-reliance or overdosing on a flukicide can lead to drug resistance growing in liver fluke.It is important that you have an effective plan for cattle that reduces the risk of resistance spreading. Treatment: Among the products that kill liver flukes are Ivomec® Plus (Merial); Valbazen® (Pfizer) and Noromectin® PLUS (Norbrook),triclobendazole, nitroxynil 34% and 3 Levanor plus.



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