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Showing posts with label veterinary medicine. Show all posts
Showing posts with label veterinary medicine. Show all posts

Saturday, March 16, 2019

Veterinary Medicine: Xerostomia in dogs.

Veterinary Medicine: Xerostomia in dogs. Xerostomia is also referred to as dry mouth,a condition that occurs when the dog stops producing saliva. Drooling shows that your dog is producing saliva ,this helps to wash over the teeth,helps moisten food during eating and keeps the oral cavity clean. Xerostomia in dogs is not painful but it can affect swallowing of food,results in dry sticky gums and bad breath. The common causes of xerostomia in dogs are 1) Dehydration. 2)Nerve damage. 3)Drug interactions. 4) Cancer treatment. Treatment is based on solving the underlying issues,but the dog is encouraged to drink more water to prevent dehydration.

Tuesday, March 12, 2019

VETERINARY MEDICINE: THE BENEFITS OF YOGURT IN DOGS.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: THE BENEFITS OF YOGURT IN DOGS.The Benefits of Yogurt for Dogs.Did you know that there is a natural option that can improve almost immediately your dog’s digestive system and in a healthy way? It is called Yogurt! Yogurt, what is it? Yogurt comes from the fermented milk by a bacteria called Lactobacillus Acidophilus that produce lactic acid. This bacteria, considered one of the “good ones,” it helps in the lactose digestion process and collaborates to keep the natural balance of the internal bacteria culture found in the digestive system as part of the native intestinal flora (Gut Flora). Yogurt is one of the best natural calcium sources that help control or avoid some gastrointestinal issues like diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel movement and yeast infection. It also promotes the production of niacin and folic acid, essential nutrients in the pregnancy stage (humans and dogs). The benefits of yoghurt for dogs: 1)The immune system is improved and enhanced. 2)Gut flora, balance control and digestion improvement of the lactose. 3)Cholesterol, it helps to control and reduce high levels of total cholesterol. 4)Yeast infection, It helps to reduce the incidence. 5)Good source of animal protein that helps to build muscle. 6)Provides a right amount of Potassium, essential to maintain muscles and nerves healthy and to regulate fluid levels in your dog’s body. 7)Good source also of Calcium that helps to develop bone health.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Temperament and Behaviors of Chow Chow Dogs .

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Temperament and Behaviors of Chow Chow Dogs. The Chow Chow dog has a lion or teddy-bear-like appearance and tends to be quite reserved in nature. This Chow Chow dog temperament can change when the dog is treated in an aggressive manner. This dog carries itself with an air of pride and expects to be treated with respect. There is a tendency for Chow Chow dog behaviors to be painted in a negative light, and they have been said to be fierce and vicious dogs, but this type of behavior is only displayed around strangers or with breeds that have not been socialized well or at all. . Chow Chow Dog Behaviors Outlined. 1)Clean and Quiet: The most interesting of the Chow Chow dog behaviors is its tendency to be clean compared to most dogs although it sheds a lot. Its “clean” behavior makes it a great dog to have as a house pet, but its shedding will need getting used to. The Chow Chow dog temperament leans towards quietness as this dog usually minds its own business. If you don’t bother it, it will not bother you, unless you come too close for comfort, then you will get a reaction from it. The “clean” behavior of Chow Chow dogs makes them easy to house-train compared to other dogs. Their cleanliness can almost be compared to that of a cat. 2)Strong Willed: A behavior of Chow Chow dogs that must be managed is the tendency to be strong willed. Unfortunately, this trait does not show up until the dog is much older. The Chow Chow dog temperament will not allow its owner to beat it into submission, nor does it feel inclined to please its trainer. The personality of the Chow Chow dog is one that runs on respect. If its owner can earn its respect, then it will obey. Consistency in the enforcement of rules, be they house rules or behavior expectations, as well as an understanding of his temperament are bound to bend the will of your Chow Chow. Variations in the tone of voice are enough to communicate instructions or wants, never feel tempted to use harsh methods to win his respect. 3)Suspicious and Territorial: Chow chow dog behaviors towards strangers can be very aggressive and ferocious as they are not very welcoming towards people they are unfamiliar with. This unfriendly behavior of Chow Chow dogs can be managed with proper socialization or by ensuring that you are present when your guests are approaching your home by requesting them to alert you with their arrival. Take a little time to introduce your friends and family to your Chow Chow so that he is familiar with them. Aggressive Chow Chow dog behaviors can be handled through obedience training when the dog is still a puppy, and then managed through adulthood. As mentioned, the Chow Chow personality demands respect, it does not take kindly to being teased or mistreated

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Behaviors of Traumatized Dogs and How to Handle them.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Behaviors of Traumatized Dogs and How to Handle them. Dogs feel happiness, sadness and all different emotions and sensations but triggered in a different way. Dogs response to trauma are all different and will respond to different situations in different ways. For example, some dogs can deal with trauma and seem completely fine, but some can’t, and sometimes with a situation not related to the trauma..the dog “loses it”. Same goes with the severity of the reaction, some dogs are badly affected, others just slightly affected and some dogs do not seem to be affected at all, there is no possible way that we can generalize and say all dogs respond the same. It is sad to say, but not all dogs have a good start in life, and for some, it can be more than simple neglect. It can be an abused dog or mistreated and this can have consequences dog’s behavior, social skills, and the way how interacts with people and other dogs. If you know up front your new pet has a traumatic background, you should make the transition as comfortable as possible. Try to create a routine with simple things like feeding it at the same time every day, giving it space for the most part and, if you have children, make sure they don’t overwhelm the dog… at first can make a big difference. Do the introduction to other pets slowly, not all at once, and if noises seem to upset him/her, keep the volume to a minimum until the dog adjusts. Animals adapt very easily to the external environment, so many will adjust with nothing more than a loving and supportive environment. But if the trauma is severe, it will be better to use the professional intervention of a certified animal behavior that can determine the best method to deal with a specific issue. Tips to deal with Traumatized Dogs. 1) Find a safe place for your dog in your house. A dog crate or his preferred spot for your dog with a dog bed will develop a clear structure of safety. This is the safe place for your dog, do not create a negative experience in that area, for example: don’t take a crate as a punishment to enclose your dog for something wrong that he/she made. 2)Avoid any situation that causes the dog fear A traumatized dog facing a stress situation can feel fear, and the fear is reinforced by the reaction to the trauma exposed, so then the fear to the same recurrent scenario can become stronger and so on. 3)Do not confront its fears or force the dog in any way If you feel you can’t manage how to help your dog the best way is to approach to a professional where he slowly and gradually can be desensitized to its perceived fears. A dog trainer specialized in dog behaviors and fear aggression will be very useful. 4)Have fun with your dog Do as much with your dog that he/she enjoy as possible. Having fun with your dog will help to increase the trust and confidence in you. 5)Never punish a fearful dog Sometimes we can misunderstand that the reaction to a trauma can be just fear and show obedience and behavior issues not listening commands. Remember, a punishment may up the fear for the dog and instead of just looking fearful it may start to react with aggression. 6)Watch your dog’s body language Dog’s body language Always take attention for signs of stress such as leash puller or pusher behavior, slower or faster movement, freezing, lip licking, yawning, etc.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Understanding Dog Barking.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Understanding Dog Barking.Barking is one way of communication that all dogs use, and it means different things depending on the scenario.Sometimes it can go out of control, and when this happens, it is your job to find out why your dog is barking so much or often to stop him/ her and control the situation. First, you need to understand three facts about why dogs bark:Fact One: It is natural, Dogs bark. Fact Two: A dog barking is not necessarily a dangerous dog.Fact Three: Excessive and out-of-control Barking can test our patience. WHATS HAPPENING WHEN A DOG IS BARKING EXCESSIVELY? As a signal of distress sent by your dog, it is a message to you for something happening.Why dogs bark? As part of the standard behavior of a dog, they can bark for a good reason such as a stranger approaching your house or for an unknown noise inside the house.But dogs can bark for other reasons that cannot be appropriate. 1) Fear:People misunderstand this kind of barking often. Fear barking may sound aggressive and can be identified as a threat, but it’s just a dog trying to create space between himself and what is triggering the fear. 2) For Territorial or for Protection:Triggered by the feel of invading the dog’s territory or for a threat. The aggressiveness and loudness of the barking could increase if the danger gets closer to the dog or his territory. 3)For Attention-seeking: Used by puppies and young dogs but also for older dogs to get your attention hoping they can get something they want (food, water, a toy, to go outside, etc.)Some dogs also bark excessively when bored. These dogs just want a way to release their energy accumulated due to the lack of exercise, entertainment, and a more stimulating environment. 4) Separation Anxiety:Dogs can bark stimulated by anxiety in a high pitch. This is the bark that may bother your neighbors. 5)Self-identification:As a way of communicating with other dogs, they can bark saying ” Hi there, I am over here.” Triggered by the other dogs barking and stop after a while by itself. HOW TO CURB NONSTOP BARKING. Nonstop barking is a problem for many dog owners.This becomes more critical if you’re taking cues from your pet. A guard dog’s bark may signal potential danger. Dogs usually bark when someone approaches their territory. You want the dog to alert you of anything suspicious instead of nonstop barking. The following method can curb this bad trait. Allow the dog to bark for a bit in those situations and then command it to come. Reward it with a treat for a connection to be made with suspicious activity and alerting a family member.It should eventually become a reflex to bark and go to a family member when the dog’s suspicion is aroused.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: How to Train Your Dog to Be a Guard Dog.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: How to Train Your Dog to Be a Guard Dog. Dogs are great for companionship, and they’re known to improve our quality of life. They give us unconditional love and affection.Your beloved pooch can also provide added protection for your home.Your pet can be taught ways to alert you of potential dangers. Fido can also protect you and your family from being physically harmed. You can teach your pet the basics of being a guard dog with a little time and patience. This type of training is best left to professionals, but basic skills can be taught at home.Professional training is generally done by one person, but everyone should participate when training is done at home. Your dog should interact with everyone in the home for safety and security reasons. Family members and other pets should never be perceived as a threat. Obedience training. You have to be able to communicate with your dog to exert control over its actions. Basic dog obedience training is necessary for a solid foundation to build on. Obedience is helpful for the average pet dog, but it’s crucial for a guard dog. Your dog has to be able to respond to your commands quickly and correctly in situations that pose a danger to the family.Your dog should be taught basic commands and be able to respond immediately when prompted. Basic commands such as come, sit, down, stay and heel should be practiced.It’s important to train your dog to respond to commands exclusively from you and household members.This includes accepting treats or food. Socialization. Socialization is needed for your dog to be able to differentiate between a normal situation and a dangerous one.Your dog should be taught to behave indifferently while in the presence of unfamiliar people, places or things. For example, your dog will likely see people and other dogs during your daily walks. Your dog should feel comfortable and safe.They should not view people or animals as a threat during daily outings. The ideal time for socializing dogs is up to about 16 weeks, but it can be done at later stages.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Veterinary medicine: Strangles outbreak kills 4000 donkeys in Niger.

Veterinary medicine: Strangles outbreak kills 4000 donkeys in Niger.An outbreak of strangles has claimed the lives of more than 4000 donkeys in the west African country of Niger since early December. Officials say that more than 8000 donkeys were affected by the contagious bacterial infection, which is also known as equine distemper, and more than half succumbed since the infection appeared in the first 10 days of December in the north of the country in Agadez, Niger’s gateway to the Sahara. Official statistics show Niger has a population of more than 1.5 million donkeys. The Ingall area was the worst affected, and the government’s minister for pastoral issues, Mohamed Boucha, visited Agadez this week to assess the impact of the outbreak.Veterinary officials said the strangles risk was heightened as the treatment of a sick animal can take several weeks, and the infection can be transferred between equines and through the pasture itself. Herders in the area have been invited to have their donkeys immunised for free by government veterinary services.

Veterinary medicine: How to Stay Healthy at Animal Exhibits.

Veterinary medicine: How to Stay Healthy at Animal Exhibits.Interacting with animals at fairs, zoos, and aquariums can be educational and fun, but it’s important to remember that animals sometimes carry harmful germs that can make us sick. Learn how to stay healthy when visiting animal exhibits. There are many ways to explore the animal world, and many people choose to visit animal exhibits to learn about and interact with animals. Animal exhibits like zoos, petting zoos.Every year, many people get sick after visiting an animal exhibit. From 2010-2015, about 100 outbreaks of illness in people linked to animals in public settings like zoos, fairs, and educational farms were reported to public health officials. Some of the most common harmful germs people get from animals at exhibits are E. coli O157:H7, Cryptosporodium, and Salmonella infections, but there are also many other types of germs that can spread between animals and people. If you forget to wash your hands after petting an animal, or bring food or drinks into an area with animals, you increase your chance of getting sick. Even animals that look clean and healthy can carry harmful germs, and areas where animals live or roam can be contaminated – you don’t have to touch an animal to get sick. Steps to ensure safety. 1)Always wash your hands right after petting animals or touching anything in animal areas (where they live, roam, or eat). 2)Wash your hands when you leave animal areas, even if you did not touch the animals. 3)Running water and soap are the best option, if running water and soap are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. 4)Wash your hands with soap and water as soon as a sink is available. Keep food and drinks out of animal areas.Don’t prepare, serve, or eat food in animal areas (with the exception of service animals, or animals that assist people with disabilities).Don’t share your food with animals, to keep yourself and the animals healthy. Animals should eat the food made for them.

Sunday, March 3, 2019

Veterinary medicine: Flea And Tick Prevention For Cats.

Veterinary medicine: Flea And Tick Prevention For Cats.Fleas, ticks and other parasites are often the bane of you and your cat's health. Stop your cat scratching through regular treatment.Cats aren’t the only ones who suffer from fleas. For every single flea living on your cat, there could be hundreds more developing in your home! Flea bites can lead some cats to develop allergies, whilst parasites can act as intermediate hosts for certain tapeworms. A heavy infestation can also cause anaemia, which is potentially life-threatening.The most recommended method to prevent flea infestations on your cat would be the use of a flea control treatment monthly, especially in the warmer seasons. In addition, the environment should also be treated regularly. Vacuuming and steaming the carpets, cleaning and washing all the bedding, and using carpet sprays are some of the options to prevent having these parasites multiplying in your house. How do I spot fleas? The most obvious sign is persistent scratching. Fleas are dark brown and about 1mm to 2mms long. You may find them – as well as tiny black specks of flea dirt – in your cat's coat during combing.

Veterinary medicine: Cat-Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae Infection).

Veterinary medicine: Cat-Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae Infection).Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial infection spread by cats. The disease spreads when an infected cat licks a person’s open wound, or bites or scratches a person hard enough to break the surface of the skin. About three to 14 days after the skin is broken, a mild infection can occur at the site of the scratch or bite. The infected area may appear swollen and red with round, raised lesions and can have pus. The infection can feel warm or painful. A person with CSD may also have a fever, headache, poor appetite, and exhaustion. Later, the person’s lymph nodes closest to the original scratch or bite can become swollen, tender, or painful. Wash cat bites and scratches well with soap and running water. Do not allow cats to lick your wounds. Contact your doctor if you develop any symptoms of cat-scratch disease or infection. CSD is caused by a bacterium called Bartonella henselae. About 40% of cats carry B. henselae at some time in their lives, although most cats with this infection show NO signs of illness. Kittens younger than 1 year are more likely to have B. henselae infection and to spread the germ to people. Kittens are also more likely to scratch and bite while they play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected. Cats can get infected with B. henselae from flea bites and flea dirt (droppings) getting into their wounds. By scratching and biting at the fleas, cats pick up the infected flea dirt under their nails and between their teeth. Cats can also become infected by fighting with other cats that are infected. The germ spreads to people when infected cats bite or scratch a person hard enough to break their skin. The germ can also spread when infected cats lick at wounds or scabs. How to prevent cat bites.

Saturday, February 16, 2019

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Why Does My Cat Bite My Nose?

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Why Does My Cat Bite My Nose?Any cat parent will tell you that we’re passionate about our felines, but we may not be so passionate about some of the behaviors that they see fit to bestow on us. For the most part, kitten bites don’t hurt, but that can change as your cat gets older and starts to bite harder. Reasons Your Cat Could Bite Your Nose There are dozens of reasons why your cat could be biting your nose, and it may be slightly difficult to narrow it down to just one source. However, the following reasons will give you a good idea on why your cat is doing this, and you can start correcting the problem so you and your cat can coexist happily and peacefully. 1)Territorial Behavior Cats can be notoriously territorial, and this extends to their humans as well as their home. If you’ve added another cat to the family recently or if you’ve been around other cats outside of the home, your cat will be able to smell these other cats, and it can trigger their territorial instincts. Cats have scent glands all over their bodies, and by biting your nose, they’re spreading their scent all over you. This helps reassure them that they won’t lose you, and it can give a subtle warning to other cats that you are taken and off-limits for other cats to attach themselves to. 2) Overstimulation Your cat has dozens of sensations coming at them from all directions 24 hours a day, and this can make it easy for them to get overstimulated. When this happens, they may act erratically or act overwhelmed and do things that they normally wouldn’t do like bite your nose. Your cat will give you plenty of warning signs that they’re getting overstimulated when they’re around you, and by stopping the contact, you can potentially stop the biting behavior. You may notice that your cat flicks or swishes their tail, rippling on your cat’s sides, rotating their ears back or to the sides, or tensing up. 3)Cleaning By nature, cats are very clean animals that can spend hours licking, grooming, and cleaning themselves and each other. This is part of the reason why most cat owners don’t bathe their cats on a regular basis, and your cat also has an excellent sense of smell that they use on you. Everything that you eat leaves a scent, and this scent can linger for hours even after you’ve wiped or washed your face. You cat may smell this because they have such an excellent sense of smell and interpret it as dirty. In response, they’ll try to clean your face, and this can result in licks along with smaller bites. 4)Attention-Seeking Behavior When cats are young, they tend to play fight, roughhouse, and bite both with you and with their littermates. Smaller bites are an excellent way to let you know that they would like attention from you right now, and it’s a behavior they learned as a kitten. Kittens can use this when they want to play with you if they don’t have a feline playmate to engage with as well. Most cats will grow out of this behavior, but some cats find that it’s a quick way to get your attention, and so they’ll keep doing it until they have your full attention. READ Twitter

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Can Cats Have Down Syndrome?

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Can Cats Have Down Syndrome? Can cats have Down Syndrome?” to be able to give you a clear and definitive answer. We’ll tell you everything you need to know about Down Syndrome and why cats can or can’t have this condition. Understanding How Down Syndrome Occurs:When all living things get pregnant and give birth, they pass down copies of their genetic material to their offspring, and this genetic material comes in pairs called chromosomes. Every plant and animal species on earth has its own specific number of chromosomes that come in pairs. For example, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, alligators have 16 pairs, cherries have 16 pairs, and cats have 18. As species continue to reproduce and pass their genetic material on, the chromosome pairs don’t change, and they stay the same. Each parent passes on one chromosome per matched pair, and this helps to ensure that their offspring get equal matching sets of chromosomes. Once in a while, something goes wrong when the parents pass the chromosomes down, and the offspring receives three chromosomes instead of the original two. When the offspring gets three chromosomes instead of two, this typically creates some kind of genetic disorder, and it’s called trisomy. Specifically, in humans, when a trisomy happens with chromosome 21, you get the genetic disorder known as Down Syndrome. Conditions That Can be Mistaken for Down Syndrome in Cats For cats, there are several conditions that they can have that may lead you to believe that they have Down Syndrome. These include: 1)Cerebellar Hypoplasia: cerebellar Hypoplasia is a condition where your cat’s cerebellum doesn’t develop as it should, and this can cause several issues with motor control. For example, your cat could have trouble walking or standing, have leg tremors, be generally clumsy, or tend to bob their head when they walk. This condition can be from a birth defect, but it can also be caused by poisoning, bacterial infections, or malnutrition. There is no cure, but this condition usually doesn’t get work as your cat ages either, and it’s relatively easy to manage once you get a diagnosis. 2)Facial Deformities Some cats can be born with facial deformities or a form of dwarfism that makes their faces look odd. For example, some cats are born with too small jawbones, missing nasal bridges, or other issues that make them look like they could have Down Syndrome.However, facial deformities can be caused by genetic conditions as well as inbreeding or accidents. They don’t come from the cat having a form of Down Syndrome. Twitter

Thursday, February 7, 2019

VETERINARY MEDICINE: EQUINE INFLUENZA.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: EQUINE INFLUENZA.Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory virus that can put horses out of work for weeks and potentially cause serious secondary infections. see Twitter

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Racing off in England due to equine flu outbreak.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Racing off in England due to equine flu outbreak.Horse-racing has been cancelled at all British racecourses on Thursday due to an outbreak of equine flu. The British Horseracing Authority announced the decision to cancel meetings at Chelmsford, Doncaster, Ffos Las and Huntingdon due to three animals from a single yard testing positive for the virus. The fact that the cases have been identified in vaccinated horses presents a cause for significant concern over welfare and the potential spread of the disease and the action to cancel racing has been viewed as necessary in order to restrict, as far as possible, the risk of further spread of the disease.

Thursday, January 31, 2019

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Heart Murmurs in Your Dog or Cat:.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Heart Murmurs in Your Dog or Cat. A heart murmur is an abnormal sound that a veterinarian hears when listening to the pet’s heart through a stethoscope during a physical exam. Normally, your pet’s veterinarian hears two distinct normal heart sounds when they listen to the heart: lub-dub…lub-dub…lub-dub. When your vet hears an additional “whooshing” sound in between normal heart sounds, this is known as a heart murmur. If your pet is diagnosed with a heart murmur, there is no reason to panic. Some heart murmurs are benign or harmless and may go away on their own, particularly in puppies and kittens. The only way to know the extent of your pet’s condition is to work with your veterinarian and/or a veterinary cardiologist (a specialist) to determine the cause of the murmur and the severity of the heart disease. Additional diagnostic testing may be required. Causes of a Heart Murmur in pets. Anything that changes the blood flow through the heart can cause a murmur to be heard. Some of the common causes of heart murmurs in dogs and cats include:1) Heart valve deficiencies. 2) Defects in the heart walls. 3)Infection of the heart valves. 4)Hereditary cardiac defects. 5)Extra vessel connecting the great arteries (patent ductus arteriosus). 6)Defects in the heart muscle walls (ventricular septal defect). 7)Obstructive injury of the pulmonary valve (pulmonic stenosis). 8)Obstructive injury below the aortic valve (subaortic stenosis). 9)Defective mitral/tricuspid valve (mitral/tricuspid valve dysplasia). 10)Acquired cardiac diseases. 11)Thickening of the heart valves (myxomatous mitral/tricuspid valve degeneration). 12)Infection of the heart valves (infective endocarditis). 13)Weakening or thickening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathies). 14)Dynamic obstruction of the right ventricle (a benign condition for cats). Signs of Cardiac Disease Not all dogs and cats diagnosed with a heart murmur will suffer from cardiac disease; alternatively, not all dogs and cats that suffer from cardiac disease will have a murmur. Signs of cardiac disease in dogs and cats can include: Difficulty breathing. Rapid shallow breathing. Cough. Abdominal (stomach) distention. Inability to exercise/weakness. Gray or blue gums. Possible collapse. Twitter

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Oral Tumors in Dogs and Cats.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Oral Tumors in Dogs.Dogs and cats are frequently diagnosed with tumors of the oral cavity. This diverse group of cancers includes growths along the:1)Gingiva (gum). 2) Lips 3)Tongue 4)Tonsils. 5)Bone and cartilage of the upper and lower jaws. 6)Structural components holding the teeth in place. Some pets are diagnosed with oral tumors incidentally, meaning a growth is detected without the animal showing any clinical signs. Some owners may visualize a mass in their pet’s mouth while they are panting or yawning. Other owners may detect a problem while their animal is lying on their back with their mouth open in a position where their tongue falls away from the bottom jaw. Oral tumors can also be detected during routine dental cleanings or while pets are undergoing anesthesia for an unrelated reason. Those procedures allow for a more thorough evaluation of the oral cavity, and every attempt should be made to use that experience to visualize an abnormality while an animal is anesthetized. Oral tumors are typically diagnosed at a relatively advanced disease stage when they are causing significant clinical signs for the patient. This can include: 1)Drooling (with or without evidence of bleeding). 2) Halitosis (bad breath). 3) Difficulty eating and/or drinking. 4) Facial swelling. 5)Signs of oral pain (pawing at the mouth or repeated opening/closing of the mouth). Oral tumors are very locally invasive meaning they cause significant damage directly at their site of origin. Gingival tumors can invade the underlying bone causing the destruction of the jawbone and loss of support for associated teeth. Certain oral tumors are more likely to spread to distant sites in the body. For example, oral melanoma has a higher chance of spreading to lymph nodes of the head and neck region via the lymphatic system or spreading to the lungs via the bloodstream, whereas fibrosarcoma tumors rarely spread. The most common oral tumors in dogs are melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and fibrosarcoma. In cats, the most common tumor is squamous cell carcinoma above all others. The diagnosis of an oral tumor will require a biopsy of the affected lesion to determine the tissue of origin. The treatment of choice for oral tumors in pets is surgical resection when possible. The feasibility of surgery will depend on several factors including:1)Tumor size. 2) Patient size. 3) Specific location within the oral cavity. 4)Degree of invasiveness to underlying tissue.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Dogs (DCM).

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Dogs (DCM). Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the most common acquired heart diseases in dogs. This disease is rarely diagnosed in cats or small-breed dogs; however, it is a common cause of heart disease in large and giant breed dogs, and usually occurs more in those that are middle- to older-aged. DCM is a condition where the heart muscle (myocardium) loses its ability contract normally and as effectively . Although DCM can affect both sides of the heart simultaneously or separately, myocardial failure of the left side is most common. Since the heart muscle cannot work as efficiently to pump blood out of the heart, blood backs up within the heart chambers and the heart enlarges in size. If pressures on the left side of the heart become significantly high as a result of increased blood volume, left-sided congestive heart failure or pulmonary edema (fluid within the lungs) can result. Although less common, myocardial failure of the right side of the heart can also occur. Similar volume overload of the right heart may result in right-sided congestive heart failure, often resulting in excessive free-fluid in the abdomen (ascites) and/or chest (pleural effusion). A familial or genetic component is believed to exist in the majority of cases. This is because of the prevalence of the disease in specific breeds such as the Doberman Pinscher, Great Dane and Boxer. The signs of DCM vary depending on the breed of dog and stage of the disease. Loss of appetite, pale gums, increased heart rate, coughing, difficulty breathing, periods of weakness, and fainting are signs commonly seen. Since blood (plasma) is being backed up into the lungs, respiratory signs are usually due to pulmonary edema and/or heart enlargement. Blood returning to the right side of the heart from the body may also back up leading to fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites) or in the chest cavity (pleural effusion). Weakness or collapse may be caused by abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and poor distribution of blood (depressed cardiac output). Treatment is tailored based on clinical presentation of each individual patient.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: New method to treat life-threatening heart arrhythmias in dogs.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: New method to treat life-threatening heart arrhythmias in dogs. Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers have developed a new treatment for dogs with a rare, but life-threatening, arrhythmia caused by atrioventricular accessory pathways (APs). The minimally invasive technique, which uses radiofrequencies, is modified from a human cardiology procedure and has a more than 95 percent success rate in treating dogs with this type of arrhythmia. Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms. Some arrhythmias are normal variants (such as the respiratory sinus arrhythmia in dogs). Dangerous arrhythmias are those that result in clinical signs and/or put the animal risk of sudden cardiac death. Cardiac causes of arrhythmias include: Heart muscle disease (such as dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defects (especially subaortic stenosis), severe valve leakage and enlargement of the cardiac chambers (chronic degenerative mitral valve disease), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), trauma to the heart muscle (animal being hit by a car), age-related changes, and infiltration of the heart muscle (inflammatory cells or cancer cells) VETERINARY MEDICINE: New method to treat life-threatening heart arrhythmias in dogs. Non-cardiac causes of arrhythmias include: Gastric dilation and volvulus (stomach turns and flips on itself), inflammation of the pancreas, low blood magnesium, severe anemia; diseases of the spleen, liver or GI tract; neurologic disease (i.e. brain tumors); endocrine disease (i.e., of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands); muscular dystrophy, anesthetic agents, medications, toxins (i.e., chocolate intoxication). Symptoms of an arrhythmia include: Weakness, collapse, exercise intolerance, fainting, fluid accumulation in the abdomen, in the lungs or around the lungs (congestive heart failure), or even sudden cardiac death. However, it is not uncommon for dogs and cats to appear outwardly normal (no clinical signs) despite having a cardiac arrhythmia. The prognosis is highly variable depending on what type of arrhythmia is present and if there is a non-cardiac (treatable) cause versus underlying severe heart disease (i.e., dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers).

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Veterinary Medicine: How to feed a cat: Consensus statement to the veterinary community.

Veterinary Medicine: How to feed a cat: Consensus statement to the veterinary community.The American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) released the AAFP Consensus Statement, "Feline Feeding Programs: Addressing Behavioral Needs to Improve Feline Health and Wellbeing" and accompanying client brochure to the veterinary community. The Consensus Statement, published in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, explores the medical, social, and emotional problems that can result from the manner in which most cats are currently fed. This statement focuses on "how to feed" because an often-overlooked aspect of feline health is how cats are fed. This Consensus Statement identifies normal feeding behaviors in cats. It provides strategies to allow these normal feline feeding behaviors, such as hunting and foraging, and eating frequent small meals in a solitary fashion, to occur in the home environment -- even in a multi-pet home. Allowing cats to exhibit these normal feeding behaviors regularly, can help alleviate or prevent stress-related issues such as cystitis, and/or obesity-related problems such as inactivity and overeating. Reducing stress with appropriate feeding programs can also help anxious cats, who in an attempt to avoid other pets in the household, may not access the food frequently enough and lose weight. Currently, most pet cats are fed in one location ad libitum, or receive one or two large and usually quite palatable meals daily. In addition, many indoor cats have little environmental stimulation, and eating can become an activity in and of itself as this current type of feeding process does not address the behavioral needs of cats.Appropriate feeding programs need to be customized for each household, and should incorporate the needs of all cats for play, predation, and a location to eat and drink where they feel safe. The Consensus Statement also highlights the importance of feeding programs, which should be designed to consider whether they are indoor-only or have outdoor access, live in multi-pet households, or are aged or debilitated.These feeding programs in many cases include offering frequent small meals using appropriate puzzle feeders, forage feeding (putting food in different locations), multiple food and water stations, and in some instances, automatic feeders.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Seizures in Dogs.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Seizures in Dogs. A seizure is a sudden episode of abnormal brain activity that often involves some loss of body control.Some dogs begin to act strange before a seizure begins and may become anxious or restless. Some may stagger, appear disoriented, or exhibit other abnormal behaviors. This period, which precedes the seizure, usually lasts a few minutes and is called the aura or pre-ictal phase. The seizure itself often manifests as full body convulsions or small, localized spasms that may last from a few seconds to a few minutes. FORMS OF SEIZURES. 1) Generalized or grand mal seizures. 2)Focal seizures. 3)Psychomotor seizures. 4)Cluster seizures. Generalized or grand mal seizures usually involve the entire body. A dog suffering a grand mal seizure may fall over, become stiff, and shake its whole body violently. Many dogs salivate or foam at the mouth, and some urinate and/or defecate involuntarily. Dogs may vocalize as well, whining and growling during a seizure. Focal seizures, the least serious type, are limited to a specific part of the body and may not look like much more than a twitch in the dog's facial muscles or limbs. Psychomotor seizures are characterized by odd behavior that lasts only a minute or two. For example, your dog may suddenly start chasing its tail or acting as if it sees things that aren't really there. Cluster seizures, which are a more serious type, are distinguished by multiple seizures over the course of 24 hours. CAUSES OF SEIZURES. 1)An environmental allergy could be responsible. Usually, removing the allergen from the dog's environment will prevent this type of seizure from recurring. 2) Some viral or bacterial infections may cause seizures in dogs. These are typically treated with antiviral or antibiotic medications. 3)The most common cause of seizures in canines is known as idiopathic epilepsy. It's believed that most dogs with this condition inherit it, but what causes it is still not clear. However, this type of seizure usually presents at times when the dog's brain activity is shifting from one mode to another (such as between sleep and wakefulness). 4) A brain tumor, whether it's malignant or benign, may also cause convulsive seizures in a dog. Treatment & Prevention If your dog has had seizures before and you think one is coming on, try to move the dog to a safe, soft area where there are no sharp objects or hard floors. The best thing you can do is to remain calm and try to keep your dog and yourself out of danger. Never put your hands near or in your dog's mouth during a seizure. Seizures in epileptic dogs can often be regulated with medications and/or lifestyle changes. There are several anticonvulsant medications that are used to control your dog's seizures.Most vets won't recommend pharmaceutical treatment if the seizures occur less often than once a month or if they're very mild. Common medications for seizures include Valium