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Tuesday, January 31, 2017

11 things unsuccessful people do over the weekend.

Everybody's working for the weekend, but how you spend your two days off may say something about how successful you are. What you get up to doesn't really matter, per se. If you prefer lounging around the house to spontaneous adventures, that's great! You probably need that time to wind down.When it comes to weekends, the main thing that separates successful people from unsuccessful people is mindfulness. Are you planning ahead and truly thinking about how to spend your free time? Here are 11 things that unsuccessful people tend to do over the weekend — and why to avoid them:1) they dont have a plan. continue

Students given ‘300 coffees’ worth of caffeine in experimental error

Students given ‘300 coffees’ worth of caffeine in experimental error: A British University has been fined after a bungled nutritional experiment led to students consuming caffeine quantities equivalent to '300 cups of coffee.'

Students given ‘300 coffees’ worth of caffeine in experimental error

Students given ‘300 coffees’ worth of caffeine in experimental error: A British University has been fined after a bungled nutritional experiment led to students consuming caffeine quantities equivalent to '300 cups of coffee.'

Vitamin D may boost IBD treatment success: Study

Vitamin D may boost IBD treatment success: Study: Low vitamin D levels may reduce the chances of success of treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as colitis and Crohn’s, according to a new study.

Anti-inflammatory diet could act to preserve bone strength: Study

Anti-inflammatory diet could act to preserve bone strength: Study: New associations between food and bone health have been outlined in a study, which suggests that anti-inflammatory diets could strengthen bone and reduce fractures.

Benefits of early detection of cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS) in pets.

Cognitive dysfunction syndrome may be incurable, but if caught early, you can stave off its effects and even show pet improvement.While cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS) is incurable, there are ways to stave it off and even get a pet to show improvement. Specialists say that too often cognitive dysfunction goes unnoticed by owners and therefore goes unreported to veterinarians. When obvious signs appear, treatment may start too late. A 14-year-old Lhasa Apso cross showed no signs of cognitive dysfunction until stress began to creep into his home. First, his owner was hospitalized for a period, so a dog sitter showed up. Then the other dog in the household died. By that time the Lhasa Apso was becoming needier and was experiencing sensory issues and apparent deafness. The absence of the owner was a stress for the dog, and that’s when it started showing its very clear indicators of cognitive decline. Dr. Nichol, who practices in Albuquerque, N.M., viewed the events that stressed the dog as fortuitous. Nichol started the dog on Novifit, fish oil, Senilife, gabapentin and Zylkene. “This dog has improved pretty significantly, and at this point it’s going on over a year now and he’s continuing to do better,” Nichol said. “[CDS] appears not to be advancing.” Supplements and diets are among the tools that specialists like Nichol use to treat CDS. That’s in addition to Anipryl (selegiline), a drug that many veterinarians prescribe for the disease. While Anipryl is widely accepted as a viable treatment, Nichol has heard from some practitioners who questioned the drug’s effectiveness. He believes that in many unsuccessful cases the pet was diagnosed in more advanced states of CDS. Dr Nichol's solution is for veterinarians to raise the subject as pet owners should receive a one-page questionnaire that has a simple scoring system using queries about disorientation, social relationships, sleep-wake cycles, memory and activity level. He

Cognitive dysfunction syndromes in dogs and cats.

Cognitive dysfunction syndromes in dogs and cats are degenerative brain diseases that are often missed until the signs become so advanced that it may be too late to help the pet or owner. in a study,researchers found that the overall prevalence of cognitive dysfunction was a little more than 14 percent, but only about 1.9 percent of cases are diagnosed. The same study found that the chances of having cognitive dysfunction increase with age, so that by the time dogs are 15 years old, 41 percent will have at least one sign consistent with cognitive decline. Neilson and Hart estimated the prevalence in geriatric dogs at 68 percent. In a 2011 review, Gunn-Moore estimated that one-third of cats 11 to 14 years old has age-related cognitive decline, which increased to more than 50 percent of cats 15 years old or older. Unfortunately, less is known about the cognitive effects of aging on senior cats than on senior dogs, but their management is similar. Cognitive dysfunction is a decline in learning, memory or awareness due to the age-related changes within the brain, and they are represented clinically by a group of signs related to varying states of dementia,although appearance is physical the root is psychological. The brains of dogs and cats undergo neuropathology as they age ,such as oxidative damage, neuronal loss, atrophy and the development of ß-amyloid plaques. These are similar changes in human brains with Alzheimer’s disease alongside other pathology that is not seen in canine (or feline) brains, they also develop these ß-amyloid plaques. The brains undergo similar pathology as they develop dementia, dogs are a great research model for human dementia. The knowledge gained from this research not only helps people, but can also help veterinarians help these pets.continue

Why Technology Isn’t One Size Fits All for Horses.

We live in a world dominated by technology. The pace of change has been breathtaking, and advances have made equine practice easier, more innovative and more efficient. But is technology the key to a successful 21st-century equine practice? Clients may view new technology as evidence that a practitioner is cutting edge and committed to the latest in equine care. As such, investing in technology may be thought of as a form of advertising. The equine world is filled with an almost limitless number of devices that blink, shine or magnetize. Practitioners should consider whether they can recoup their investment in treatment technologies. In some circumstances, technology clearly decreases the time needed to accomplish a task. For example, digital radiography offers significant advantages insofar as the speed with which radiographs are processed, ultimately allowing practitioners to take more radiographs compared to other technologies. Similarly, distributing the radiographs can be done via email, negating the need for telephone communication. As much as we may want it to be so, technology does not always result in greater efficiency. Practices that lean heavily on technology systems may be virtually paralyzed if a system breaks down or if a provider is unresponsive or, even worse, goes out of business. New technologies come with learning curves that can make implementation a struggle and result in lost productivity and frustration.continue

Monday, January 30, 2017

How Horses Can Help Couples Battling Dementia and Alzheimer’s.

A program at UC Davis is using collaborative efforts with horses to help couples dealing with Dementia and Alzheimer's."Horses have this innate ability to sense feeling and energy around them and they give you that immediate feedback," said Paula Hertel, who alongside Nancy Schier Anzelmo created the Connected Horse Project. Both have worked with horses their whole lives, and spent their professional careers focused on seniors' health issues like Alzheimers and Dementia. Between those subjects they drew a connection one not everyone saw at first. Most estimates from the Alzheimer's Association put the number of Americans suffering from Alzheimer's at more than five million - the majority are over age 65. In its worst stages Alzheimer's patients can lose their ability to speak entirely. Working with the horses takes nonverbal communication. At the heart of the research with Connected Horses, the idea that couples dealing with Alzheimer's can learn to interact better with each other by communicating with the horses. continue

Malaria drugs fail for first time on patients in UK.

A key malaria treatment has failed for the first time in patients being treated in the UK.The drug combination was unable to cure four patients, who had all visited Africa, in early signs the parasite is evolving resistance. A team at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine said it was too early to panic. But it warned things could suddenly get worse and demanded an urgent appraisal of drug-resistance levels in Africa. Malaria parasites are spread by bites from infected mosquitoes. It is a major killer of the under-fives with one child dying from the disease every two minutes. Between 1,500 and 2,000 people are treated for malaria in the UK each year - always after foreign travel. Most are treated with the combination drug: artemether-lumefantrine. But clinical reports, now detailed in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, showed the therapy failed in four patients between October 2015 and February 2016. All initially responded to therapy and were sent home, but were readmitted around a month later when the infection rebounded. Samples of the parasite that causes malaria were analysed at the Malaria Reference Laboratory at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Dr Colin Sutherland told the BBC News website: "It's remarkable there's been four apparent failures of treatment, there's not been any other published account [in the UK]." All of the patients were eventually treated using other therapies. But the detailed analysis of the parasites suggested they were developing ways of resisting the effects of the front-line drugs.Two of the cases were associated with travel to Uganda, one with Angola and one with Liberia - suggesting drug-resistant malaria could be emerging over wide regions of the continent.continue

Off grid solar satellite television.

UK-based solar company Azuri Technologies and Kenyan satellite TV provider Zuku launched the service in Kenya in December. A solar panel is fixed to the roof of a customer's home, and connects to a battery which powers a range of appliances, including lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a 24-inch (61cm) TV which accesses Zuku's Smart satellite TV service. Users pay an upfront fee of 4,999 Kenyan shillings (£39) for the system, and thereafter pay 149 shillings(£1.15) per day. By the end of two years on this payment schedule, customers own the kit outright. While solar power products have been available in Kenya for several years, and some free-to-air terrestrial TV stations have been accessible in rural areas, this is the first time off-grid households have had access to a full range of satellite pay-TV channels.All powered by the sun. AzuriTV provides lighting in their home, including a security night light, as well as access to world news and entertainment. Azuri aims to go beyond lighting and to provide each customer with TVs, internet access, entertainment and a range of services. continue

Virtual reality and entertainment.

Imagine finding yourself on a futuristic stage with rock legends Queen as they blast out their greatest hit, Bohemian Rhapsody. A neon-rendered Freddie Mercury struts around you. Well, now that fantasy experience can be a reality - albeit a virtual one. Last year Queen collaborated with Google Play and Enosis VR to create a 360 degree virtual reality (VR) take on the groundbreaking video for the band's 1975 hit. This video is is often credited with fuelling the boom in pop videos that characterised the 1980s. The interactive app uses 2D and 3D animations combined with motion-captured ballet dancers to immerse the viewer in the late Freddie Mercury's"subconscious mind". continue

Foods can improve your gut bacteria.

The gut microbiome - the diverse community of bacteria that inhabits our intestines . Almost every day we come across headlines claiming that it has the power to influence our health in new and surprising ways, whether it's our weight, our mood or our ability to resist infection. Unsurprisingly, given this explosion of interest in our inner ecosystem, our supermarket shelves and pharmacies now stock an array of probiotic products - products containing live bacteria and yeasts - that claim to be able to influence our gut microbiome for the better. But is any of this actually possible? see

Cats may be as intelligent as dogs.

Japanese scientists say cats are as good as dogs at certain memory tests, suggesting they may be just as smart. A study - involving 49 domestic cats - shows felines can recall memories of pleasant experiences, such as eating a favourite snack. Dogs show this type of recollection - a unique memory of a specific event known as episodic memory. Humans often consciously try to reconstruct past events that have taken place in their lives, such as what they ate for breakfast, their first day in a new job or a family wedding. These memories are linked with an individual take on events, so they are unique to that person. Saho Takagi, a psychologist at Kyoto University, said cats, as well as dogs, used memories of a single past experience, which may imply they have episodic memory similar to that of humans. Episodic memory is viewed as being related to introspective function of the mind; our study may imply a type of consciousness in cats,continue

Climate Change And Large-Scale Adoption Of Big Data Hydroponics.

Climate Change And Large-Scale Adoption Of Big Data Hydroponics.Food and water (in)security, changing weather patterns, and shifts in global demographics REQUIRE large-scale adoption of advanced hydroponics. Why? Because Global Food Systems are under attack and advances from agricultural mechanization in the 1920s and the Green Revolution from 1940-1960 have largely been exhausted. Farmers and ranchers are already facing devastating impacts from the realities of Climate Change – including severe floods, extreme heat and drought, and increased pressures from changing disease and pest patterns. This has resulted in protein unavailability and further malnourishment in many of the developing nations .continue

Beans and Sustainable Agriculture:.

Pulses are an amazing protein and might save the Planet,Pulses like chickpea and pigeonpea contribute towards the new Sustainable Development Goals to reduce poverty and hunger, improve health and gender equity, promote responsible consumption and help adapt to climate change. Beans as a means for sustainable agriculture for the following reasons; 1)Lower Carbon footprint. 2) Water . 3) Nitrogen Fixing & Soil Microbial Diversity. Pulses have a lower carbon footprint in production than most animal sources of protein. One study showed that one kilogram of legume only emits 0.5kg in Co2 equivalent, whereas 1kg of beef produces 9.5 kg in CO2 equivalent . Lentils are one of the foodstuff that contributes the least emissions, far fewer than turkey, salmon or other common sources of protein. How do Beans reduce Carbon Emissions? 1)Low water use results in low energy use. 2)Reduces nonrenewable energy in the entire crop rotation by 22-24%. 3)Pulse-Pulse-Wheat cropping has 34% less carbon footprint compared to a Cereal-Cereal-Wheat cropping pattern. 4) Better farming practices, including use of pulse crops, can lower the average carbon footprint by 24 to 37%. 5) Nitrogen fertilizers contribute to carbon footprint as its energy footprint is over 7.5 times more than other fertilizers such as phosphate and potash. 6) Pulses help reduce use of chemical fertilizers by fixing nitrogen. continue

Sustainability and Global Food Systems .

Farmers and ranchers are already facing devastating impacts from the realities of Climate Change – including severe floods, extreme heat and drought, and increased pressures from changing disease and pest patterns. Major advantages of conservation agriculture are:1)Reduced wind and water erosion of topsoil. 2)Increased water use efficiency through improved water infiltration and retention. 3)Increased nutrient use efficiency through enhanced nutrient cycling and fertilizer placement adjacent to seed. 4) Reduced oscillation of surface soil temperatures. 5)Increased soil organic matter and diverse soil biology. 6)Reduced fuel, labor and overall crop establishment costs. It’s a win-win situation for the environment AND the economy when it comes to introducing legumes into agricultural systems, says new research,Good for you, good for the planet, and good for the smallholder farmer. Pulses like chickpea and pigeonpea contribute towards the new Sustainable Development Goals to reduce poverty and hunger, improve health and gender equity, promote responsible consumption and help adapt to climate change. continue

Trifarm launches online portal for farmers.

Trifarm launches online portal for farmers.The new website, ‘’ connects producers and buyers of agricultural products in a novel way. The online portal is built on a predictive model which allows farmers to input crop data, enabling buyers to forecast market conditions months in advance. cccFounder of the company, Garvin Francis, stated that this platform will solve one of the major issues facing agriculture, which is market access – linking buyers such as hotels, restaurants and agro-processors to producers. For years, stakeholders were unable to access a market-forecasting model such as this. He continued to state that the potential benefits of this initiative are significant, noting that one hurdle in its implementation is the ability of farmers to make the transition online. Through a sustained re-tooling campaign, the company intends to equip farmers with the best practices required for this new platform. continue

Growing Hunger for Brazilian Chicken as Bird Flu Spreads.

The bird flu outbreak sweeping across Asia and Europe means you may soon be eating more Brazilian chicken. The world’s top exporter has been untouched by the highly contagious virus that led to widespread culling of birds -- more than 30 million in South Korea alone. After some key importing nations banned poultry from infected countries, Brazil is expected to see further demand for its products. The avian influenza outbreak is also good news for other virus-free nations that can fill the supply gap, such as the U.S., which is the second-biggest exporter and mostly evaded contamination since cases escalated in October. Because migrating wild birds carry the disease, there’s a risk that it will keep spreading, Societe Generale SA said in a report earlier this month.continue

Your dog loves you five times more than cat.

A new study has shown that your dog loves you 5 times more than cat. The study which found that the canines release the love hormone when they see their owners while the felines barely produce any. Scientists already know that canines and humans release the love hormone known as oxytocin when they are together. The scientist took saliva samples from 10 cats and 10 dogs prior to a 10-minute playtime session with their owners. He then took another saliva sample from all of the participants after their playtime encounter, testing it for the presence of oxytocin. According to the results, a 57.2% increase of the hormone oxytocin was found in dogs; whereas a 12% increase of the hormone was found in cats. "From this sample it is true to say that these dogs love their owners five times more than the cats do It was really surprised to discover that dogs produced such high levels of oxytocin,showing the dog level of 57.2% is a very powerful response, it shows these dogs really care about their owners.see

A new app helping pets to find paw-friends.

‘PetsApp’, an android app helps you find a play date for your pet.The ‘dating’ app for pets, works on a principle similar to that of Tinder’s. Once you create a profile for your dog, based on your location, you get a series of prospective mates for your pooch in the vicinity. Swipe left to ignore and right to like. If both users swipe right, it’s a match and they can chat and meet up. This app not only benefits canines, but also their owners. “You can chat with other dog lovers and start a connection based on this mutual love for pets,” says Yugal Pandey, who found a playdate for his five-year-old labrador, Benny via the app. Creators of the app, Delhi-based couple Sujata Kukreja and Akhil Nath were inspired for a project like this when one of their dogs struggled with “loneliness”.The app also includes some additional features. There is a chat-enabled adoption forum (no buying and selling is encouraged), lost and found option (with a GPS tracker), pet book (which is more like a pet Instagram, were you can click, share and upload pictures of your pets and their daily antics), and information centre (articles, tips and news relating to pets) There is a plan to add ‘Ask your Vet’ service, vaccination tracker, deals of the week on unique pet products and others after monitoring the progress of the app for two months. continue

Karnataka Tiger deaths: Wildlife experts call for trained professionals.

With the continuing deaths of tigers in Nagarhole-Bandipur region, wildlife officials and experts call for a dedicated team of vets and a separate veterinary cadre in the state forest department. There is also a need for a department of wildlife health monitoring, rescue and forensics in view of the rising man-animal conflict, especially in districts having tiger reserves. Five tigers and one leopard have died in the last 23 days. The rising pressure on the state forest department to capture and relocate tigers and leopards has in fact exposed the clear lack of veterinary expertise in dealing with both immobilization and post-treatment measures as also wildlife diseases. Given the gravity of the situation, more trained professionals in wildlife health are needed for the five tiger reserves.continue

Revolutionizing Cocoa Farming in Peru.

A technique pioneered by one family is helping thousands of cocoa farmers in Peru increase their yields – and inspiring chocolate enthusiasts around the world. -The small jungle town of Tocache, Peru, was notorious in the ‘80s and ‘90s as a hub of coca production, drug trafficking and violence. After successful coca eradication efforts in 2002, a government program helped coca farmers in the San Martín region migrate to cocoa production – reorienting from the drug market to the chocolate market. Yet most farmers lacked the knowledge to produce high yields on their new cocoa farms. Carlos Sierra and his family started growing cocoa along with other farmers in their community, but they quickly stood out. Through tireless trial and error, they developed an agronomy technique that resulted in productivity levels five times the local average. The Sierra farm became well known among cocoa farmers in the San Martín region, yet other farmers struggled to replicate their success. The technical experts spent a year working closely with the Sierras to document, standardize and adapt their agronomic practices for a wide audience. The result was a methodology called the Synchronized Fertilization and Pruning Technique, known by its Spanish acronym “TAPS.” TAPS focuses primarily on fertilization (adding nutrients to the soil) and pruning (trimming excess leaves and branches from trees) as drivers of productivity. Synchronized pruning and fertilization are recommended in three phases during the year, rather than the traditional annual approach. credit

New ultrasound technique is first to image inside live cells.

Researchers have developed a breakthrough technique that uses sound rather than light to see inside live cells, with potential application in stem-cell transplants and cancer diagnosis.Researchers at The University of Nottingham have developed a new nanoscale ultrasound technique that uses shorter-than-optical wavelengths of sound . The research published in the paper 'High resolution 3D imaging of living cells with sub-optical wavelength phonons' in the journal, Scientific Reports. Unlike light, sound does not have a high-energy payload, this has enabled the Nottingham researchers to use smaller wavelengths and see smaller things and get to higher resolutions without damaging the cell biology. People are most familiar with ultrasound as a way of looking inside the body but its being engineered to the point where it can look inside an individual cell. Nottingham is currently the only place in the world with this capability. Ultrasound in the cells causes no damage and requires no toxic chemicals to work, and this makes it possible to see inside cells that one day might be put back into the body,eg as stem-cell transplants.

Digital technology and food security.

Digital technology has made its way into various industries but its impact in agriculture has the highest advantages with food security being on top of the list.Farmers have harnessed the use of technology as a tool to grow their business and also as a selling platform to reach out to consumers and connect to would be customers. The task to feed the ever growing population estimated to reach 9 billion by 2050 is no small one and farmers,are employing all available tools to keep up with the demand. The use of precision agriculture is not a new concept as more and more farmers are imbibing this concept to promote growth and development of their agribusiness. Phones are the simplest tool in this digital transformation as this is used as a platform for training, dissemination of information ,marketplace and data management. Read more and this Digital technology is helping farmers and agribusinesses build resilience, achieve scale and develop sustainable solutions in Africa. This is what the “fourth industrial revolution” looks like for increasing numbers of the world’s smallholder farmers. Nearly a third of the global population relies on agriculture for a living, and growth in this sector has been shown to be at least twice as effective at reducing poverty as growth in other sectors. But progress can be frustratingly slow. The average African maize farmer, for instance, produces five times less per hectare than the average American grower. A variety of new digital applications are now accelerating interventions that have been shown to improve productivity and growth in this sector. Connected Farmer, for instance, is a mobile product started in East Africa from a public-private partnership between Vodafone, USAID and the nonprofit TechnoServe, to help farmers work with agribusinesses and better manage continue

Sunday, January 29, 2017

Chewing your food could protect against infection.

A study, recently published in the journal Immunity, found that chewing food also known as mastication can stimulate the release of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in the mouth. Th17 cells form a part of the adaptive immune system, which uses specific antigens to defend against potentially harmful pathogens, while enduring "friendly" bacteria that can be beneficial to health. According to the study team, in the gut and the skin, Th17 cells are produced in the presence of beneficial bacteria. However, the researchers note that the mechanisms by which Th17 cells are produced in the mouth have been unclear, they noted that the mechanical force required by mastication leads to physiological abrasion and damage in the mouth. The researchers came to their findings by feeding weaning mice soft-textured foods, which required less chewing, until they reached 24 weeks of age. At 24 weeks, the release of Th17 cells in the rodents' mouths was measured. A significant reduction in oral Th17 cell production was noted, which the team speculated was down to a reduction in mastication-induced physiological damage. The researchers found that increasing the levels of physiological damage in the rodents' mouths by rubbing the oral cavity with a sterile cotton applicator led to an increase in the production of Th17 cells and so the researchers believe these findings indicate that chewing food may help to protect us from illness. However, the researchers caution that increased oral Th17 cell production may not always be beneficial; too many of these cells can increase the risk of periodontitis, or gum disease, which has been associated with numerous other health conditions, including diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. The team also found that long-term exposure to physiological damage caused by mastication can exacerbate the effects of periodontitis.

Victorian farmer group calls on Federal Government to subsidise Q Fever vaccine.

The Victorian Farmers Federation is calling for increased access to Q Fever screening services and for the vaccine to be subsidized. Farmers, livestock handlers and abattoir workers are most at risk of contracting the disease, which is carried by livestock, domestic and wild animals. Some larger rural businesses such as meat processors, saleyards and livestock transporters are required by WorkSafe to protect workers against the disease by screening and vaccinating for Q Fever.According to the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services, rates of Q Fever infection have fluctuated in recent years. There were 34 cases of Q Fever in Victoria in 2014, with 59 cases in 2015 and 48 last year. But figures from the Australian Q Fever Register, collated by the Australian Meat Processor Corporation, show the number of people being registered to be screened and tested for the disease in Victoria jumped from 4,502 in 2014-15 to 4,948 in 2015-16. A dairy farmer from Victoria's Gippsland region will have to outlay thousands of dollars to screen and vaccinate his staff against Q Fever after one of his employees contracted the disease. Greg Peddle milks 750 dairy cows on his property at Yarram, about 220 kilometres south-east of Melbourne.The worker was diagnosed and treated for the disease immediately and was only away from work for one day. But under instruction by WorkSafe, Mr Peddle must now enforce a "no jab no job" policy, which will require all workers employed on his farm to be screened and vaccinated.continue


This an infectious disease caused by a bacteria, Coxiella burnetti and its found worldwide. The bacteria naturally infects some animals, such as goats, sheep and cattle. C. burnetii bacteria are found in the birth materials such as placenta, amniotic fluid and also in urine, feces, and milk of infected animals. The disease is of zoonotic importance people who have close contact with farm animals such as farm workers, vets, abattoir staff and livestock agents carry the greatest risk of contracting Q fever. Abattoir workers are at risk of infection when working on pregnant animals. Farmers must be careful when assisting at calving and avoid direct contact with afterbirth materials. Aborted fetuses and afterbirth should be disposed of safely by burning. The Q fever bacteria is very tough and can survive for months in the environment as infected animals shed the organism in urine, milk, feces and placental fluids. Contact with fetuses and fetal membranes from aborted animals can expose individuals to high doses of infective material. Animals are infected with the Q fever organism by inhaling or ingesting infected material such as urine, milk, feces or after-birth from infected animals. People are infected most frequently by inhaling infected material from these same sources or from environmental contamination. Wind borne transmission of the organism in dust is an important source of infection. Animals with Q fever are not treated, but infected people should receive prompt medical attention to relieve symptoms and avoid serious complications.Tetracycline and doxycline are drugs of choice for treatment although a vaccine is also available for prevention.

Worm study provides clues to better fat-loss therapies for humans.

Scientists have discovered key details of a brain-to-body signaling circuit that enables roundworms to lose weight independently of food intake, and there are reasons to suspect the circuit exists in a similar form in humans and other mammals. Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered key details of a brain-to-body signaling circuit that enables roundworms to lose weight independently of food intake. The weight-loss circuit is activated by combined signals from the worm versions of the neurotransmitters serotonin and adrenaline, and there are reasons to suspect that it exists in a similar form in humans and other mammals. The study, published by the journal Cell Metabolism noted that boosting serotonin signaling has been seen as a viable strategy for weight loss in people, but results hint that boosting serotonin plus adrenaline should produce more potent effects .The surprising discovery was that serotonin isn't the sole driver of this weight-loss pathway, but works in concert with another neurotransmitter, octopamine -- the C. elegans version of adrenaline (also called epinephrine) in mammals.

Scientists find brain hormone that triggers fat burning.

Scientists find brain hormone that triggers fat burning.Biologists have identified a brain hormone that appears to trigger fat burning in the gut. Their findings in animal models could have implications for future pharmaceutical development. Biologists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have identified a brain hormone that appears to trigger fat burning in the gut,work published in the journal Nature Communications.Earlier studies had shown that the neurotransmitter serotonin can drive fat loss. The newly discovered fat-burning pathway works like this: a neural circuit in the brain produces serotonin in response to sensory cues, such as food availability. This signals another set of neurons to begin producing FLP-7. FLP-7 then activates a receptor in intestinal cells, and the intestines begin turning fat into energy.

Leonardo DiCarprio unveils Google’s new high-tech tool to curb illegal fishing.

Google has joined hands with popular actor Leonardo DiCarprio’s foundation to crackdown on illegal fishing. The search engine giant and the foundation have launched a new high-tech tool to track down unregulated fishing. The tool named as Global Fishing Watch was launched by Leonardo DiCaprio on Thursday. Main aim of the tool, a surveillance system, is to keep a constant check on global fishing practices taking from space and help bring decline in illegal fishing in the oceans. At the event, DiCaprio encourage everyone to check out the technology, which as per him will make citizens to be better protectors of the oceans. Oceans are vital for the livelihood. In fact, it is the primary food source for millions of people.continue

Hair Loss Among Men Could Help Predict Risk of Prostate Cancer.

Anew research has shown that hair loss among men could help predict risk of prostate cancer. The team of researchers at the University of Toronto team evaluated cases of male pattern baldness and found a strong link between hair loss and prostate cancer risk. The Canadian research team added that high level of testosterone is considered as a reason behind hair loss and prostate malignancy. However, men facing hair loss should not start worrying about the results of this study. Majority of men suffer male pattern baldness as they age and the percentage of bald men rises with age. The research team from the University of Toronto checked medical records and male pattern baldness among 400 men who came to Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto for prostate biopsy. The research team asked these men about their degree of baldness at age 30. Their current hair loss status was also checked and evaluated on the Norwood scale A study published by the U.S. National Cancer Institute said that men with moderate baldness were more likely to suffer prostate cancer. The University of Toronto team found that men with higher extent of baldness had higher chances of suffering from prostate cancer, among the 400 men who came to Princess Margaret Cancer Center for testing. continue

Koycera Launches Washable Smartphone in Japan.

Japanese company Kyocera has launched a smartphone which can be washed with soap and water. While other smartphone vendors are boasting about water-resistant or waterproof smartphones, Kyocera has gone a step ahead and suggested that users can wash their smartphone with water and soap. Kyocera has launched ‘Rafre smartphone’ in Japan. The smartphone is the second washable phone launched by the company after its first in December 2015. The phone’s touchscreen even works while you wash it under faucet. In its official press release, Kyocera informed, “Like its predecessor, the new rafre features resistance to hot water and a touchscreen that be can be used even when the user’s hands are wet or when wearing gloves.” Using hand gestures, users can use the phone without even touching the screen. Gestures can help you scroll on certain apps without touching the screen and even answer calls. Rafre comes with 2GB RAM and 16 GB internal memory which can be increased by adding SD card. The smartphone offers high quality images with 13 mega pixel camera. The company added, “Furthermore, the new handset is equipped with a special cooking app which allows users to scroll through recipes, set timers and answer calls through hand gestures without having to touch the display. This allows use of the smartphone while users’ hands are coated with cooking ingredients.”continue

Saturday, January 28, 2017

The secret of raising pigs from a millionaire farmer.

GASPARD Kabalisa is a management consultant, who has exploited his entrepreneurship and managerial experience and skills to rake in millions from pig rearing. Kabalisa currently owns a model piggery with 70 pigs at Gasanze cell in Nduba sector, Gasabo District. Kabalisa says he started the farm in 2012 with a partner, who later pulled out because of financial reasons. Piggery has many advantages to a farmer: they eat a wide range of feeds, making it easy for a farmer to get feeds.He argues that piggery is also the easiest business to control. Every business can be rentable if done professionally. He says most of the animal feeds, including forages like sweet pepper, taro, squash, sweet potatoes, egg plants, maize are produced on his farm, but he buy a few processed feeds. James Akananiyundi, the veterinary officer at Kabalisa’s farm, however, says cultivated forages are important to supplement the industrial feed, on one hand, and to reduce operational costs on the other hand.Recently, the vet introduced a high yielding variety of beans that are rich in iron to improve the animals’ nutrition and help fight against anemia, which he says is a serious disease pig farmers are wary of. He plans to increase my stock to at least 400 pigs in next five months, set up a modern slaughterhouse on the farm and a small meat processor in order to gain more from business.continue

The 7 hurdles to scale before you can succeed in business.

The startup grind, are you ready? Why do some people succeed in business, while others stutter, stumble and fail? Think about it for a moment. Successful entrepreneurs come in all forms, shapes and sizes. They don’t particularly fall into any specific categories that make them special. 1)Fear; Fear is the biggest hurdle of all. It’s not the most dangerous hurdle, but it’s the most common one that afflicts people who want to start a business and become entrepreneurs. But why is fear so common? Why does it exist? The fact is, fear exists because of uncertainty. The less we know about the outcome of something, the more afraid we are. That’s why the fear of failure is the biggest fear of all when it comes to starting a business.The fear of failure is so powerful and domineering that more than 95 percent of people who have brilliant business ideas cannot act on these ideas because they’re too afraid to fail. 2) Perfection ;When it comes to business and entrepreneurship, getting started is always better than being perfect.Starting a business is like learning to walk. When you were a baby, you didn’t have to wait until the perfect time, and then suddenly start to walk. Babies start by crawling, and then they learn to stand, and then make several attempts to walk. The first time they walk it’s not perfect and most babies stumble and fall, but they always stand up again because they know that every new attempt they make brings them better at walking. 3) Law of bounce;Successful entrepreneurs have a high bounce, they always bounce back up whenever they hit the ground. Disappointments, problems and challenges are normal in entrepreneurship. Successful entrepreneurs factor in setbacks when starting or running a business. 4) Unbelief ; you must believe in yourself,your product and basically belief that you have what it takes to deliver. Starting and running a business is tough and only people with a strong and positive mindset can survive the rough seas of entrepreneurship. A positive mindset is the key. 5) Myopic vision; most people have a short term approach to business,they want instant success. Building a business takes time and needs constant tugging at ,with a picture-perfect vision on the long term. 6)Procrastination; like they say its the thief of time.Delaying your startup only prolongs the learning curve and delays the expected income. Start now or never. 7) ...... fill in the blank.Think about it,what is holding you back,what is the glass ceiling all about? Think about it and cross the hurdle and get to work.

Sage a herbal remedy for pain , inflammation and cognitive disorder.

Salvia officinalis is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. Sage or garden sage as its commonly refered to ,is closely related to rosemary, and they are often considered “sister herbs”. The traditional use of sage in medicine is well-documented and dates back thousands of years,when it was used for the treatment of snakebite, protection against evil and boosting female fertility. According to research published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, the herbs sage and rosemary contain potent anti-pain and anti-inflammatory compounds. These compounds known as carnosol and carnosic acid are potent anti-inflammatory agents and also help reduce pain. In one study published in the medical journal Current Medicinal Chemistry, researchers found that sage’s ability to prevent the breakdown of a critical brain messenger hormone may make the herb helpful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Sage has been found to be so powerful in its ability to treat Alzheimer’s disease that the German Ministry of Health is currently considering adding sage as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease to its Commission E Monographs—a compilation of the safety and effectiveness of herbs. While there are various species of sage, the one most commonly found to be beneficial for Alzheimer’s disease is Salvia lavandulifolia. The herb also help menstruating women who are suffering from excessive bleeding, nursing women who experience excessive lactation, as well as menopausal women who are suffering from hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms. Another benefit of sage is actually its high level of vitamin K, an essential vitamin for the body that isn’t found in many common foods. Vitamin K is a crucial element for developing bone density and ensuring the integrity of our bones. Sage, particularly in its essential oil , has a history of use in the balancing of hormones. Sage is also available in tea form, dried or fresh herb, tincture, capsules or essential oils for those looking to take advantage of its anti-pain, anti-inflammatory and brain-boosting effects.


A study shows that developing nations are the most vulnerable to damage from invasive species, and countries at the center of global trade are the most responsible for the spread of the pests.A moth with a voracious appetite for tomatoes made its way from its native South America across the Atlantic to Spain in 2006, before setting its foot in the Middle East and then recently Africa. The female tomato leaf miner lays a couple of hundred eggs that stick to the underside of tomato plant leaves before hatching into larvae that bore through every last part of the plant, destroying it and making fruits pockmarked and inedible. This is not such a big deal for backyard gardeners, but it is a huge problem for tomato farms, where the moth’s larvae have reduced crop yield by 80 to 100 percent in some places. Though invasive pests like this moth don’t really care where they proliferate, as long as their preferred host plant is in abundance, a new study published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences shows that they are likely to have a much bigger effect on developing countries than on wealthier ones. continue

Social media and tragic selfies

On vacation with your family or friends, you see something great and you know that a million regular photos has been snapped before, with that exact scene. How to spice things up for your virtual friends of course, take a selfie. Taking a selfie comes with incredible risks attached to it. Driving, flying, or doing any other activity that requires you to focus is from the start not compatible with taking a selfie. If animals are involved, chances are they will not like your idea. We have chosen 17 innocent people who tragically died while trying to take a selfie in an attempt to raise awareness on the tragic phenomenon. People are dying before or after taking their beloved pics. Is it really worth it? Taking a selfie has become a second nature for most people and even professional photographers are dropping the charges on this new form of artistic expression. However, with so many cases where things went wrong, some measures need to be taken. Tourist officials are beginning to create selfie free areas, where this dangerous sport is allowed. At the same time, insurance company let no one go on a trip without asking first “Are you going to take a selfie while enjoying your vacation? Bull fighting selfie; In August 2015, a man was gored to death in the Spanish city of Pamplona. The 32-year-old David Lopez was foolish enough to leave the protected area and capture on film a feud between two bulls. Sick of running in vain, the animals sought revenge when they saw the man armed only with the latest iPhone in hands. We have reasons to believe the man died with a smile on his face. He had fulfilled a life’s goal by taking one of the best selfies ever. Unfortunately, the footage was confiscated and kept as evidence by the police. more

Eggs ,eggs and more eggs.

call to order your eggs.

Caloric restrictions extend life of Monkeys .

A new research has shown that dieting monkeys survive longer than others without caloric restrictions. Caloric restriction (CR) extends survival in rhesus monkeys, as senior authors Rozalyn Anderson, University of Wisconsin, Madison, and Rafael de Cabo, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, report in the January Nature Communications. This result in a nonhuman primate suggests scientists will be able to apply what they have learned about caloric restriction in shorter-lived animal models such as yeast and mice to humans. In monkeys, what and how much they eat absolutely influence how they age and with genetic similarity to people, there’s every reason to believe that would also be true in humans. The analysis combined two experiments begun in the late 1980s that tested whether caloric restriction improved health and survival in monkeys. One came from the University of Wisconsin, where scientists studied 76 adult monkeys . The other, from NIA, included 121 monkeys aged 1 to 23 and both studies put half the monkeys on a CR diet. At the NIA, some animals started the diet when they were young, and some when they were older. In the end, both studies agreed that there was a health benefit to CR if not an improvement in longevity. Animals on a restricted diet developed age-related conditions—such as bone and muscle loss, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease—at half the rate of control animals.

The link between social media and animal cruelty.

There is a link between animal cruelty and social media,with craze for selfies with these animals causing deaths or discomforts in some cases. Recently,it was reported that a small dolphin died of dehydration when tourists took it out of water for selfies.Tourists killed a La Plata dolphin on a beach in the resort town of Santa Teresita. They passed the animal around while vying for selfies. Eventually it died of dehydration. Tourists mishandled two peacocks when taking selfies, resulting in the death of the animals. A man at Palm Beach in Florida dragged a small shark out of the water in order to take a selfie. Tourists snapping selfies in Costa Rica are stopping endangered sea turtles from breeding. And there is a dark side to those ‘cute’ viral videos of slow lorises. Many tourists see wild animals as exotic and adorable objects, as props for photos and nothing more. Social media highlights our tendency to view animals as merely things to be used, and often for the most trivial reasons. Selfies taken with wild animals and posted on Instagram may appear innocent and cute. Cruelty towards animals is not just wrong in itself as this kind of behavior may make people more cruel in general. continue

GPS tracking technology to ensure animal welfare.

GPS tracking technology to ensure animal welfare,because animal welfare on huge range-lands is a challenge. Researchers are now collaborating to find ways to help ranchers better manage livestock and improve animal welfare. Researchers in Australia are very close to having real-time or near real-time GPS tracking of livestock. Derek Bailey, professor in the New Mexico State University Department of Animal and Range Sciences, is working to find ways to help such ranchers better manage their livestock and improve animal welfare.His efforts include collaborating with researchers in Australia, where the rangeland is similar to that in New Mexico and other western states. On rangelands in New Mexico, in the western United States and in most of Australia, ranchers have extensive pastures on which they can't see the livestock all the time, the cows have to free -roam out in the range, so you can't watch them. The GPS device would be affixed to a collar that would send a signal to a nearby tower, potentially up to 10 miles away from the animal. That data would be collected and transferred to the ranch headquarters. Ideally, the information would be sent via the internet to a smartphone application.

Nordic countries and an energy transition.

Nordic countries are bringing about an energy transition worth copying. A new study by Professor Benjamin Sovacool at the University of Sussex offers some important lessons.The Trump administration's "First energy plan" criticizes the "burdensome" regulations on the energy industry and aims to eliminate "harmful and unnecessary policies such as the Climate Action Plan" which was introduced by President Barack Obama. It has also deleted all mentions of climate change and global warming from the White House website. Given the American leadership vacuum on energy and climate change, national and local planners looking to bring about energy transitions will need to look elsewhere. Five Nordic countries -- Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden -- could hold answers for how to make the transition to a more energy efficient society generating energy through renewables. About 83% of electricity generation in Nordic countries is low-carbon, of which 63% comes entirely from renewable sources. The Nordic countries are also facilitating other low-carbon transitions across other sectors including heat, buildings, industry, and transport. A new study outlines broad lessons for how this transition could be replicated elsewhere. The energy transition pays for itself (if you factor in the costs of air pollution) The total estimated cost of the Nordic energy transition is roughly $357 billion more than business as usual, which comes to a total of less than 1 percent of cumulative GDP between now and 2050. Almost all of these costs will be offset by fuel savings. Even the external costs associated with the health impacts of air pollution alone in the Nordic countries (about $9 to $14 billion annually) are roughly equal to the additional investment needed to achieve a carbon neutral scenario. Trade and interconnection with other countries are key for reaching energy targets Trade and interconnection with Europe are instrumental to the Nordic countries reaching their carbon and energy targets. Nordic electricity trade must expand considerably -- underscoring the need for paralleled, coordinated grid development and interconnections with Great Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. "It's as much a regional governance or European challenge as it is a national priority for individual Nordic states," says Sovacool, a Professor of Energy Policy at the University of Sussex's Science Policy Research Unit and Director of the Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand. Continue

Nanoparticle fertilizer could contribute to new 'green revolution'.

The 'Green Revolution' of the '60s and '70s has been credited with helping to feed billions around the world, with fertilizers being one of the key drivers spurring the agricultural boom. But in developing countries, the cost of fertilizer remains relatively high and can limit food production. Now researchers report a simple way to make a benign, more efficient fertilizer that could contribute to a second food revolution. Farmers often use urea, a rich source of nitrogen, as fertilizer. Its flaw, however, is that it breaks down quickly in wet soil and forms ammonia. The ammonia is washed away, creating a major environmental issue as it leads to eutrophication of water ways and ultimately enters the atmosphere as nitrogen dioxide, the main greenhouse gas associated with agriculture. This fast decomposition also limits the amount of nitrogen that can get absorbed by crop roots and requires farmers to apply more fertilizer to boost production. However, in low-income regions where populations continue to grow and the food supply is unstable, the cost of fertilizer can hinder additional applications and cripple crop yields. The researchers developed a simple and scalable method for coating hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles with urea molecules. HA is a mineral found in human and animal tissues and is considered to be environmentally friendly. In water, the hybridization of the HA nanoparticles and urea slowly released nitrogen, 12 times slower than urea by itself. Initial field tests on rice farms showed that the HA-urea nanohybrid lowered the need for fertilizer by one-half.

Dog Rescued From Meat Farm sleeps standing up.

Harriet arrived at the shelter scared, sad and exhausted. After what she'd been through, it was completely understandable.A little over two weeks ago, the three-year-old Korean Jindo had been stuck in a cramped cage at a dog meat farm in Wonju, South Korea, with about 200 other dogs. Like most dog meat farms in South Korea, the conditions were deplorable. If Harriet had stayed there, she and the other dogs would have been killed for their meat, and probably in a horrible, painful way. They're tortured, and they aren't always dead when they skin them. Harriet was now thousands of miles away from the horrors at the meat farm, but she was still traumatized.Harriet continued to sleep standing up until she was assisted to lie down on the fuzzy blanket, which acted as Harriet's very first dog bed. see

New NAFTA could be good for agriculture in Mexico.

Renegotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) could be an opportunity to extricate Mexican agriculture from rules that have harmed farming in Mexico. Sergio Barrales Domínguez, president of the Autonomous University of Chapingo (UACh) in Puebla, said threats by U.S. President Donald Trump to reopen NAFTA represent an opportunity to “make do without North American food” and fuel the domestic market and national food production. The university president referred to 56 programs the school has already created, which include rainwater collection systems for farming and human consumption, and its biofertilizer and gasoline saving programs. Pedro Ponce Javana, deputy director of the institution, backed the president’s stance and issued the admonishment that the government vision that agriculture is “only a business” should shift to one in which it is considered a strategic sector for the country instead. The statement pointed out that Mexico imports 30% of the beans it consumes, 50% of the wheat, 80% of the rice and over 17 million tonnes of yellow corn, as well as other vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and processed foods. continue

From Farm to Fork – Developing New Technologies to Analyze Veterinary Medicines in the Agri-Food Supply Chain.

Stuart Adams, Ph.D, a Senior Analytical Chemist at Fera Science Limited, UK, gave an informative presentation on targeted and non-targeted analyses of residues of veterinary medicines at the 130th AOAC meeting, 2016, Dallas, Texas. He discussed the development of a new LC-MS/MS multi-residue method based on high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) mass spectrometry (MS). Dr Adams began by noting that the EU guidelines for validation of methods for the analysis of veterinary medicines in food of animal origin and animal products were currently under review to include high resolution mass spectrometry. He is part of a team evaluating the Thermo Scientific™ Q Exactive™ Focus Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap™ Mass Spectrometer for the screening of 167 veterinary medicines in a single multi-residue method. - continue

The veterinary medicine daily .

The veterinary medicine daily is a compilation of veterinary and medical news from around the world. Pet health and safety is top priority,learn how to deal with emergency situations and how to prevent occurrence. The one health initiative is an important learning curve that demonstrates the relationship between animals and man and how to deal with emerging diseases. The war against abuse of antimicrobial s in food animals is on and steps and control measures are outlined to stop this practice to ensure food safety. continue.

Why you should never kiss your cat.

Cats constantly groom their fur,licking and cleaning their anal region thus making their mouth a haven of bacteria. Kissing a cat ? think again

How to feed a cat.

The number of times you feed your cat and the way you present the meal could be one reason your pet is obese. According to a new research feeding your cat once or twice a day is contributing to the overweight issues common in most cats nowadays. The researchers advice that actually feeding your cat small meals five times a day, including at night is a better nutrition protocol. These smaller meals mimics how your cat would eat if he were hunting and catching prey, such as mice. When cats are given a large amount of food in one sitting, they ignore their natural inclination to stop eating when they are full. Additionally, they are more sedentary, since they don’t need to hunt for their food, all of which can lead to obesity. When you want to feed your cat, try to give him small portions of food at a time,or you can make feeding time resemble a hunt hiding bits of food throughout the house, or using a toy which requires your cat to play with it in order to dispense the food. You can also play with your cat before feeding time to simulate how he would eat when hunting in the wild.If your cat is overweight, simply changing the way that you food him may help him to lose weight. You won’t notice an immediate change, but with a bit of time your cat’s weight should decrease. source

Reduce, replace and re-think the use of antimicrobials in animals.

Reducing the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals, replacing them where possible and re-thinking the livestock production system is essential for the future of animal and public health. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the world’s most pressing public health issues and the use of antimicrobials in animals contributes to this problem, so limiting their use to the minimum necessary to treat infectious diseases in animals is crucial. Control strategies that have been important drivers for change include setting of national targets to reduce antimicrobial use. The use of antimicrobials in animals should be reduced to the minimum that is necessary to treat infectious diseases. Other than in exceptional cases, their use to prevent such diseases should be phased out in favour of alternative measures. Critically important antimicrobials for human medicine should only be used in animals as a last resort. Alternatives to antimicrobials that have been shown to improve animal health and thereby reduce the need to use antimicrobials include vaccines, probiotics, prebiotics, bacteriophages and organic acids. However, reducing the use of antimicrobials and finding alternatives is not enough. There is a need to re-think the livestock system by implementing farming practices that prevent the introduction and spread of the disease into farms and by considering alternative farming systems which are viable with reduced use of antimicrobials. Education and awareness of AMR should be addressed to all levels of society but in particular to veterinarians and farmers. Experts concluded that it is reasonable to assume that reducing antimicrobial use in food-producing animals would result in a general decrease in antimicrobial resistance in the bacteria that they carry and the food products derived from them. However, they could not quantify the impact of single reduction measures or alternatives to antimicrobials on levels of antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals and food due to lack of data. continue

Blood bank for cats.

A blood bank for cats is run in Australia ,giving hope to cats who need blood transfusions to recover from trauma and anemia and to survive major surgery or cancer.The Animal Hospital at Murdoch University treats and saves many critically ill cats at its emergency clinic, the demand for blood has continued to rise and the hospital is calling on donors to keep the blood bank functioning. Donor cats get a free vet examination with every donation and the pool of donors is made up with felines owned by veterinary staff and students. In the past and in a lot of smaller clinics, if a vet had a patient that needed a blood transfusion, they would often pop home and get their dog or cat, bring it in and collect a blood donation. The blood bank has changed all that,where blood is pooled from donors and used when needed. Harry almost died from blood poisoning but was saved by transfusion from the community blood bank ,now Harry donates blood to the center to help other cats. The recovery is fine and the cat doesn’t suffer in any way. The procedure for donation is simple, it involves dropping your cat off at the clinic in the morning and pickup your cat at the end of the day. Cats who give blood are given anesthesia during the procedure. source

Friday, January 27, 2017

Dog donates blood to save life of cat that had eaten rat poison.

Rodenticide poisoning in pets accounts for a large percentage of deaths in households basically because pets are curious ravaging and rooting at every corner and most importantly the owners were not discrete when applying baits. Rodenticide poisoning is an emergency and its easy to prevent your pets from consuming the poison than running around after deed is done. Read how to lay baits in the house to prevent poisoning in pets. see When the level of poisoning is high and condition critical,peculiar interventions can be employed to save the pet. This was what happened when a cat ate rat poison,the owner rushed to the vet who did what she could do to save the cat. The vet did a blood transfusion using a dog's blood and luck was on her side as she did not have time to type the blood,but cat survived. The owner is happy and cat is doing well and without any doggy behavior. read

Bulgarian stray cats get bionic legs .

Bulgarian stray cats get bionic legs.Two stray Bulgarian cats who lost their hind legs in accidents have been given bionic paws, in what vets say is the first such operation in Europe outside Britain. One-year-old Pooh, whose name means "fluff" in Bulgarian, scurries around Sofia's Central Vet Clinic, chasing a toy mouse and curiously sniffing at medicine bottles inside an open cupboard—just like any other cat would. The only difference is a gentle tapping sound as his two tiny polymer-and-rubber paws mounted on titanium stems touch the floor. Pooh, who is thought to have lost his legs in a car or train accident last April, is back on the prowl thanks to Bulgarian veterinary surgeon Vladislav Zlatinov. He is the first vet in Europe to successfully apply the pioneering method of Irish neuro-orthopaedic surgeon Noel Fitzpatrick, who shot to fame in 2009 when making Oscar the first bionic cat by fitting him with new hind legs in Britain. continue

Corn turning French hamsters into deranged cannibals.

A new research has shown that corn turning French hamsters into deranged cannibals.A diet of corn is turning wild hamsters in northeastern France into deranged cannibals that devour their offspring, there is an imbalance, and the hamster habitat is collapsing. The findings, reported in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, finger industrial-scale monoculture as the culprit. Once nourished by a variety of grains, roots and insects, the burrowing rodents live today in a semi-sterile and unbroken ocean of industrially grown maize, or corn. The monotonous diet is leaving the animals starving, the problem is a lack of vitamins especially vitamin B3, or niacin. According to the report, A first set of lab experiments with wild specimens compared wheat and corn-based diets, with side dishes of clover or worms. There was virtually no difference in the number of pups born, or the basic nutritional value of the different menus.,but when it came to survival rates, the difference was dramatic. About four-fifths of the pups born of mothers feasting on wheat-and-clover or wheat-and-worms were weaned. while only 5% , of the baby hamsters whose mothers ate corn instead of wheat stayed alive that long. These females stored their pups with their hoards of maize before eating them, and Pups were still alive at that time. The cannibal mothers showed other signs of abnormality,such as climbing,running in circles and pounding their feeders. The females also had swollen and dark tongues, and blood so thick it was difficult to draw for samples. Vitamin B3 deficiency has been linked to 'black-tongue' syndrome in dogs, and a condition in humans called pellagra, also known as the "3-D" disease: diarrhoea, dementia and dermatitis, such as eczema.

Feedback and disease prevention in pigs.

Feedback and disease prevention in pigs. The term feedback refers to methods of controlled antigen oral exposure in pig farming,and several methods have been explored to stimulate antibodies in the sows and piglet. The major benefit of feedback is to ensure a disease free stock and production of healthy piglets. The feedback material is usually fed to the sows 8-10 weeks before farrowing to ensure that colostrum is concentrated with antibodies. The common form of feedback material is fecal matter from scouring pigs or from sows in gestation and this will generate maternal antibodies that will be available through colostrum. Pig intestines from sick pigs,low-weight piglets and from dying neonates. The purpose is to extract a concentrated material that contains specific bacterial agents that came from sow feces and the best source for these agents is probably the intestines of young pigs. Another feedback method involves freezing the material into ice blocks giving the pigs access to lick and chew before it melts or the feedback is processed and the slurry is poured on the sows feed. The efficacy of feedback depends on the time of giving feedback, type of feedback collected and the housing arrangement of the sows.The housing arrangement is key as feedback practice has proved to become more difficult when keeping gestating sows in groups, as sows are free to move around and When using electronic Sow Feeding (ESF) stations as the sows are not simultaneously fed,thus exposure to feedback is not uniform. A research published in the Journal of Swine Health and Production says providing additional ice blocks to sows might overcome the nonuniform exposure to feedback and thus confer herd immunity.Enteric pathogens of swine can be frozen and still be viable. Ice blocks could provide a convenient and effective vehicle for controlled exposure of pathogens to pen-gestating sows if sufficient numbers of sows interact with the ice blocks before they melt. The research shows, that when ice was placed in the pen on two consecutive time points 1 week apart, over 90% of the sows in the large dynamic pen contacted the ice. When 4 blocks were used instead of 2 blocks,this increased the number of sows to make contact with the ice, as well as increasing the duration of contact by individual sows and decreasing aggression at the ice block.

MEPs hop into action on rabbit farming welfare

MEPs hop into action on rabbit farming welfare: Member States of the European Union are encouraging rabbit farmers to phase out conventional battery cages.

Indian pork industry benefits from UK pig semen

Indian pork industry benefits from UK pig semen: The Indian and British livestock sectors have strengthened relations after pig semen from UK animals was shipped to India for the first time.

Avian Flu Outbreaks Raise Concerns About Possible Pandemic.

Avian Flu Outbreaks Raise Concerns About Possible Pandemic. U.K. officials confirmed a fifth area in the country has been hit with the H5N8 strain of the avian flu since December. The strain has been spread from wild birds to farmed poultry, but has yet to affect humans, according to the U.K. Department of the Environment. There have been more than 40 countries reporting outbreaks of different strains of the avian flu since last November, according to World Health Organization officials. With the new avian flu outbreaks popping up in recent months, health experts have been increasingly concerned that one or more of the various strains of avian flu could mutate, increasing the risk of a dangerous new flu that could spread quickly across the globe. Normally the virus spreads among birds, often transmitted long distances by wild birds that migrate. In rare cases people in close contact to the birds become ill and the virus rarely spreads from person to person. Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease expert at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, said the public health community is increasingly concerned that the virus could potentially mutate. "The concern always is that they could pick up a gene that permits that kind of flu to spread readily from person to person," Schaffner said. Currently "bird flu by itself cannot do that." However, Schaffner said in recent years the medical community has developed better surveillance technology to find new outbreaks more easily. On Monday, World Health Organization said they were on "high alert" due to the avian flu outbreaks and the possibility of mutation. During an address to the WHO executive board on Monday, WHO Director Margaret Chan explained one form of the virus first detected in humans in 2015 was created "by gene-swapping among four different viruses." She urged all countries to closely watch for avian flu cases in both birds and humans to stop any new easily transmitted strain of the virus from spreading. "We cannot afford to miss the early signals," Chan said. continue

Equine veterinarians says delayed response to Hendra virus vaccine report stalls education of horse owners.

Equine veterinarians says delayed response to Hendra virus vaccine report stalls education of horse owners.Equine veterinarians say the Queensland Government's decision to delay its response to a report into the Hendra virus vaccine for horses is hampering their efforts to educate horse owners. The vaccine was developed by the CSIRO to protect horses from the deadly bat-borne virus, but some horse owners have questioned its safety.Equine Veterinarians Australia (EVA) president-elect Ben Poole said the delay meant continuing uncertainty, especially for horse owners. He said any delay in a response meant there would be a delay in implementation, pushing back action on critical issues like the speed of testing in the north, which can have consequences for horse health. source

New research strategy offers hope to pastoralists battling mystery cattle disease in southern Flinders Ranges.

South Australia's peak livestock body wants more research funding to help solve mysterious cattle deaths that have left pastoralists and vets baffled for more than a century. About 30 pastoralists from the Hawker and Craddock region have met with Livestock SA and PIRSA vets to discuss a strategy to tackle the unexplained stock deaths. Termed the "November disease", the deaths typically occur within a single cattle or sheep mob without explanation from November to February in years when there is greater rain and more pasture in paddocks. Symptoms include drooling, diarrhea, neurological problems and in almost all cases, eventually leads to death, with autopsy results showing severe liver and kidney damage, intestine inflammation and brain lesions. There are a number of theories about what could be causing the unexplained deaths with pulpy kidney suggested to be the cause in 2016, but that diagnosis has since been ruled out. Other speculated causes are bacterial or fungal toxins from soil or plant matter but ultimately, the cause remains unknown. PIRSA chief veterinary officer Roger Paskin said the sporadic nature of the disease made it difficult to investigate but thus far his team had ruled out all the known traditional bacteria, viruses and infectious conditions.Dr Paskin said understanding those "ecological triggers" for the disease would be key to getting to identifying the cause. more

Doctor pulls 6 foot-long tapeworm from a guys's mouth.

Doctors are telling of a remarkable medical case in which they had to a remove a 6-foot-long tapeworm from a man's gut by pulling it through his mouth. Live Science explains that the 48-year-old patient from India had been having stomach pains for two months before he decided to visit PVS Memorial Hospital in Kerala. During a colonoscopy, doctors discovered a segment of a pork tapeworm, a common sign that a larger tapeworm is hiding elsewhere in the body. Doctors then maneuvered a camera into the man's upper intestine, where they found what Dr. Cyriac Philips describes as the longest tapeworm he's ever seen. The worm was curled up, but as doctors began slowly pulling it out through the patient's mouth in what must have felt like an endless scarf gag, its size became clear. In the end, it measured a little over 6 feet long, doctors write in the New England Journal of Medicine. The patient—who was kindly sedated during the 1.5-hour procedure—likely became infected after eating raw or under cooked pork, per the CDC. Those who have tapeworms often don't know it because they're typically symptom-free. Another case,a 20-foot-long tapeworm caused a man to lose 22 pounds in three days. source

Male baboons and domestic violence.

Male baboons and domestic violence. Male baboons turn to domestic violence for a chance to mate and sire their own offspring. A study shows that male baboons turn to domestic violence when in a group with few fertile females so they kill infants sired by other males and attack pregnant females, causing them to miscarry, so as to have a mating chance . This behavior reduces their waiting time to breed with pregnant and nursing females, who otherwise wouldn't become sexually available again for up to a year. This study which appeared in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, is a result of a long-term study of wild baboons monitored on a near-daily basis since 1971 at Amboseli. Researchers studying a baboon population around Amboseli National Park in southern Kenya found that immigrant males were responsible for roughly 2 percent of infant deaths and 6 percent of miscarriages between 1978 and 2015 and when cycling females were few, the death rates more than tripled. In situations where males have few opportunities, they resort to violence to achieve what's necessary to survive and reproduce,and When reproductive opportunities abound, this behavior is less frequent. At any given time, a troop of baboons typically contains one or two newly arrived males that have left the group where they were born in search of opportunities to reproduce and pass on their genes elsewhere. A baboon male would normally have to wait at least a year for a pregnant or lactating female to finish gestating and nursing her infant and resume cycling for a chance to sire her next offspring. When female have no baby to gestate or feed anymore , females that suffered a miscarriage or the death of an infant were ready to conceive again within 41 days. The study showed that most killer males went on to mate with the mothers of their victims.

How the male baboons choose their partners.

The female baboon's big red bottom has an aphrodisiac effect on her mates,though this may repel others. Scientists have long thought that baboon males prefer females with bigger backsides as the sign of a good mother, but recent study proves otherwise. The study in the journal Animal Behavior reveals that the size of a female's swollen rump doesn't matter as much as earlier concluded. Baboons breed throughout the year, and mating occurs during times when a female's behind is swollen -- a sign that she may be ovulating. For ten to 20 days each month, the tissue in a female baboon's hindquarters swells up, reaching peak size when a female is most fertile and then shrinking back to normal. The researchers recorded male courtship behavior during the time when females were swollen and they found that big-bottomed females were no more likely to attract mates than their smaller-bottomed counterparts. The males preferred females that had cycled more times since their last pregnancy,rather than going for bigger backsides. Female baboons are like humans they don't start ovulating again right away after having a baby, return to normal cycles when their infant starts weaning, but until that time they're less likely to get pregnant.The results suggest that baby readiness means more to males than the bigger bottom, because rather than size, it seems that males use the number of postpartum cycles as a cue to gauge their likelihood of making a baby. The male baboons seem to follow this law that lesser butt-size is better than bigger.

Dog's diet and its gut microbiome.

In a new paper, researchers report that the ratio of proteins and carbohydrates in a canine's daily diet have a significant influence on the balance of microbes in its gut. Researchers observed that dogs fed a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet had enriched microbial gene networks associated with weight loss in humans. The paper published in mBio, researchers from Nestle Purina PetCare Company report that the ratio of proteins and carbohydrates in a canine's daily diet have a significant influence on the balance of microbes in its gut. Among other findings, they observed that dogs fed a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet had decreases in the ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes bacteria, as well as enriched microbial gene networks associated with weight loss in humans. These microbial responses were more pronounced in obese and overweight dogs than in dogs of a healthy weight. The study will help identify new microbiology-inspired strategies for managing pet obesity, which is a growing problem.According to the most recent annual survey by the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention ,more than half of pet dogs in the United States are overweight or obese. Altering dogs diet to be high in protein and soft on carbohydrates with a blend of fat and supplements will keep dogs in trim and healthy.

Agricultural fires in Brazil harm infant health, a warning for the developing world.

Agricultural fires in Brazil harm infant health, a warning for the developing world. Anew research has shown that exposure to pollution from agricultural fires in the last few months of gestation leads to earlier birth and smaller babies. Researchers at Princeton and Duke universities gathered information from satellites, pollution monitors and birth records to untangle those competing influences and accurately measure the impact of pollution from the fires. They found that exposure to pollution from the fires in the last few months of gestation leads to earlier birth and smaller babies, and they found some evidence of increased fetal mortality. Conditions in early life, including in-utero, have been shown to affect children's long term outcomes, not only in terms of health but also their educational and economic success.

Thursday, January 26, 2017

Scientists develop new flu vaccines for dogs.

Scientists develop new flu vaccines for dogs.Scientists at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry have developed, for the first time, two new vaccines for canine influenza.Dogs that have been infected with multiple influenza viruses have the potential to act as "mixing vessels" and generate new flu strains that could infect people. Today, veterinarians use vaccines that include inactivated or killed flu virus, but experts say they provide short-term, limited protection. Scientists created two "live-attenuated" vaccines against H3N8 canine influenza virus, which is currently circulating in dogs in the U.S. Past research shows that live-attenuated vaccines, made from live flu virus that is dampened down so that it doesn't cause the flu, provide better immune responses and longer periods of protection. The study, published in the Journal of Virology, found the live vaccine was safe and able to induce better immune protection against H3N8 canine influenza virus in mice and dog tracheal cells than a commercially available inactivated vaccine.

Restoring the sweet tomato flavor.

Modern tomatoes lack sufficient sugars and volatile chemicals critical to better flavor. Those traits have been lost during the past 50 years because breeders have not had the tools to routinely screen for flavor.The supermarket tomatoes are bigger but they lack the vine flavor that was common some years back from farm fresh products,as the quest to get bigger,juicer faster maturing fruit overshadowed the taste peculiar to tomatoes. The breeding and selection of different strains to achieve bigger fruit has been fingered as the root of the dwindling taste,thus genetic intervention is needed to reverse what was produced years ago. In a study published in the journal Science, Harry Klee, a professor of horticultural sciences with UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, identifies the chemical combinations for better tomato flavor. The first step was to find out which of the hundreds of chemicals in a tomato contribute the most to taste,researchers studied "alleles," the versions of DNA in a tomato gene that give it its specific traits. Scientists then identified the locations of the good alleles in the tomato genome,using genome-wide assessment study. The scientists mapped genes that control synthesis of all the important chemicals,and used genetic analysis to replace bad alleles in modern tomato varieties with the good alleles.

The battle over palm oil in Gabon.

There is a battle over palm oil in Gabon presently,the environmental agencies are pitched against the producers and investors sighting logging/deforestation as an issue. Firstly, the new Gabonese operations of agricultural trading company Olam International was heavily criticized by US environmental NGO Mighty Earth in December. Then Dimensional Fund Advisors, a big US investment firm that had previously been criticized for continuing to invest in palm oil companies, decided to divest two of its portfolios of all such assets, including equity in Wilmar International and Olam. The campaign against palm oil could have profound implications for the sector’s development in Africa. Palm oil cultivation has become controversial because ecologically diverse areas of rain forest are often cut down to allow cultivation to take place. Huge areas of forest have been felled in Indonesia and Malaysia, affecting flora and fauna, and producing air pollution caused by forest fires when land is being cleared for palm oil plantation. According to Friends of the Earth and numerous other environmental NGOs, palm oil plantations are the fastest growing cause of rain forest destruction and an increasingly important cause of climate change. Palm oil produces almost quadruple oil yeild compared to sunflower or rapeseed oil, and the majority of the palm oil is produced in Indonesia and Malaysia. However, African countries have also been targeted for cultivation more recently. Olam is a major player in the global palm oil sector and a big investor in African agri-business. The company currently sources more than 99% of its palm oil from third-party suppliers. In 2011, it set up a palm oil and rubber cultivation joint venture with the government of Gabon, with equity shared 60:40 in favour of the Singaporean firm. Mighty Earth’s ‘Palm oil’s black box’ report claims that environmentally important forest areas have been cleared and the report is accompanied by video footage of tall trees being felled. A spokesperson for Mighty argued: “These forests are the last place any company should be looking to develop plantation agriculture.” continue

Technological advancement in veterinary medicine.

There are significant technological advances available to practitioners as many practices now have complete in-house diagnostics for blood chemistry and blood counts. Test results can now be obtained within a half hour versus being sent out to an overnight referral laboratory. The diagnostic devices also include computerized ECG and digital radio graphs ,which eliminates x-ray film as all the images are uploaded to a computer. These can be sent anywhere by email if needed for further analysis. Ultrasound technology has also improved, allowing for early detection of pregnancies or even some abdominal diseases, resulting in earlier diagnosis and treatment. surgeons are trading scalpel for surgical laser as it is now used routinely for certain procedures. Kittens can now go home the day after a declaw surgery in much more comfort and with no stitches or bandages. These surgeries can be followed by a separate laser as a form of therapy that reduces postoperative inflammation and facilitates healing. An important part of animal health continues to be dental health. Now with digital dental radio graphs and refined oral surgery instruments, the common dental cleaning can help prevent future disease. Portable dental units have been designed to provide ultrasonic scaling, polishing, and high-speed drilling for oral surgery. It has been proven that bacteria from dental disease can decrease health by attacking internal organs. Mobile apps and devices such as trackers have found a place in practice,drones have been used in certain areas to collect/deliver samples to areas that are not motor able. The digital revolution has taken a new turn as the surgeon can access information at the speed of light and also with the touch of an app monitor clients,check appointments and even examine a patient via the phone. Veterinarians can easily connect with colleagues mile -away,offering tips and updates about a case and then there is the possibility of participating in a surgery iles away from your location without moving,all possible by mobile phones,apps and a data platform.

The veterinary medicine daily.

A compiliation of veterinary news, around the world. Dog mimics owner's expression? see how . Learn how pharmacists can bridge the human-vet practice #onehealth. Veterinary jobs, online courses see

South African e-learning to reach excluded.

South African e-learning to reach excluded. Tablets, laptops and digital learning are increasingly being used to reach students with little or no access to education, according to an international report from the ITU/Unesco Broadband Commission. This is especially crucial in the developing world, where Unesco says the digitilization of learning could be a means of accelerating progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, such as ensuring access to primary school for all children. This process is already evident in Africa, which according to Unesco has 30 million primary-age children not attending school, over half the global total. Yet the continent is overcoming challenges surrounding lack of internet access and electricity to become a major player in the e-learning space. According to a recent report from Ambient Insights, Africa is the region globally where e-learning revenues are most likely to increase, with South Africa the leading market on the continent. The University of South Africa (Unisa), which teaches through distance learning, has over 310,000 South African and international students enrolled. The mobile operators have launched digital learning projects, such as Vodacom's "e-school" offering online educational content.All over the country, companies of all shapes and sizes are tapping into the growth of the digital learning market. Chris Rawlinson, founder of South African e-learning company, 42courses, says: "We are living in a world where two billion more people from mostly emerging markets are about to get online." continue

Telecommunication and agricultural revolution in Pakistan.

Pakistan is an agricultural country as agriculture is backbone of the country’s economy. According to Pakistan’s Economic Survey 2016, agriculture contributed 20 per cent of GDP that accounts for 42.3 per cent of Pakistan’s employed labour force. Despite its importance, the agriculture sector is suffering from unpredictability in growth and its performance remains subdued. According to Pakistan’s Economic Survey 2014-15, insufficient progress in technological innovation, limited progressive farming techniques, marketing and trade restrictions, low prices of crops and traditional processing methods are major reasons for low production. Around 40 per cent of the total agricultural production was wasted in post-harvest due to insufficient utilization of biotechnology. In this scenario, use of biotechnology seems to be the most fitting solution to revive this sector. There is a strong need to launch an initiative to digitize agriculture and provide necessary information to farmers to increase production. It is heartening to note that a mobile company operating in Pakistan has taken the initiative in this regard but the services of this initiative are limited to certain regions, which needs to be extended to the whole country.source.

New bird flu case reported in China.

New bird flu case reported in China. A new bird flu case today reported in Chinas Hunan province, taking the total number of human H7N9 avian influenza cases in the South Central province to 17 this year. H7N9 is a bird flu strain first reported to have infected humans in March 2013 in China The 67-year-old patient in Hengyang city, who was diagnosed with the flu, was critical, the Hunan provincial disease control and prevention centre said. He had come in contact with poultry and fell ill, the centre said. People who have had close contact with the patient have not shown symptoms of fever or coughing. Hunan has reported as many as 17 human H7N9 infections, including five fatalities this year, state-run Xinhua news agency reported. In addition to Hunan, human infections have also been reported in Guangdong, Guizhou, Hubei, Henan, Jiangxi and Shandong provinces and in Shanghai, Hong Kong and Macao. An early onset of this years human H7N9 virus, which is more active this winter, has resulted in more infections in Hunan and the whole country, Liu Fuqiang, an official with the Hunan disease control and prevention centre said. The public are advised to avoid direct contact with poultry and wear masks when symptoms such as headache, fever, coughing and chest congestion appear.At least 10 people have died from the virus since the start of the year, according to disease control centers in Henan, Guangdong and Hunan provinces. SOURCE.

How to bathe a cat.

These steps are important; 1) trim cat's claw to be prevent been clawed. 2) put a rubber mat in the tub,to prevent slipping. 3) partly fill tub with warm water,just some few inches. 4)carefully handle the cat,latter the coat with cat shampoo. 5) rub the shampoo on coat and wash all areas avoiding the eyes. 6) rinse shampoo off thoroughly and wipe the head region with wet cloth. 7) wrap cat in towel to dry.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Chocolate toxicity in dogs.

VETERINARY MEDICINE: Chocolate toxicity in dogs. Chocolates are harmful or rather toxic to dogs. The level of toxicity depends on the type of chocolate and quantity consumed,the rule of thumb is the darker the chocolate the higher the rate of toxicity. VETERINARY MEDICINE: Chocolate toxicity in dogs. Chocolate contains a chemical called theobromine, which is a stimulant similar to caffeine. Theobromine also found in tea has negative effects on the heart, kidneys and nervous system. When level of toxicity is high as in very severe cases the heart rhythm can be stimulated enough to cause the heart to stop. Theobromine also cause seizures and induce comas. Signs of chocolate toxicity include ;1)vomiting. 2)diarrhoea. 3)trembling/shaking 4) fever 5)tachycardia 6)rapid breathing. When next you decide to give your dog a treat,stay away from chocolate. Read labels and avoid food with theobromine,caffeine and cocoa.

Periodontal disease in dogs.

Periodontal disease is caused by plaque,plaque contains 100 trillion bacterial cells in every gram under the gum line. This causes “pockets” to form around teeth as bone and gum tissue, which normally fit tightly around each tooth, are destroyed.Plaque bacteria are 100 times more resistant to antiseptics, and antibiotics won’t resolve the problem either, but mechanical removal will. The purpose of periodontal therapy is to prevent bone loss, because bone loss has severe consequences that can be fatal. The prevention of plaque is the best therapy and this can be initiated by oral hygiene using by routine brushing of dog's teeth. A large number of dogs have periodontal disease as high as 85% which is partly due to the early onset in younger dogs,thus its important to incorporate oral hygiene early. Oral hygiene can be in form of brushing,use of oral rinse or dental chews. Stages of periodontal disease. 1) Gingivitis: This is the only reversible stage and signs include bleeding, swelling and glistening gingiva. Identifying and treating gingivitis early on can successfully prevent more serious problems from developing, and there is no bone loss. 2)There is bone loss of less than 25% and periodontal pocket depths of 3 to 5 mm. This is not severe for a large-breed pet such as a golden retriever or Rottweiler, but it can be extremely severe in a pets under 6kg. 3) The bone loss of more than 25% and less than 50% is characteristic and treatment plan is based on the tooth size and amount of attachment loss. 4) There is about 50% bone loss, teeth in this stage are loosely attached and extractions are the only option.