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Friday, September 30, 2016

Rabies kills prevent it.

Rabies a deadly fatal but preventable viral disease that affects warm blooded animals and can also affect man being a zoonotic disease. The rabies virus is transmitted through bite of an infected animal, the saliva is the medium of infection. The virus usually transferred through bites from infected animals or from salivary secretions from infected animals on wounds,cuts and scratches. This mode of infection is usually common in the dumb form of rabies ,where the animal is docile, shy but drooling saliva. This form of rabies is the most dangerous as the animal is not a suspect, but rather the owner is cuddling and stroking the pet and coaxing it to eat and be social. The exposure to the drooling saliva usually results in transmission of the virus through mucous membranes, minor cuts and tiny bites,with the owner not seeking medical attention. The furious form of rabies is the most common and recognizable type,where the animal is very violent,drooling saliva, barking and chasing things or people. The animal with this form of rabies are usually sneaky,creeping up behind victims or suddenly charging out at animals or humans in his path. When a pet owner notices a sudden change that is violent ,with the animal barking,howling at moving objects,snapping and biting stuff and drooling of saliva,such animal should be reported to animal control for quarantine. When bitten by a dog ,cat monkey or bat carry out the following ; 1) wash the area with soap and water for at least 15 minutes and apply alcohol to the site and go to the hospital for post exposure rabies prophylaxis. The animal in question should be quarantined, while the person is getting the shots. People that have died as a result of rabies, is because they did not seek medical attention early,or the pet owner gave false report about the vaccination status ,thus giving the victim false hope that the pet is not rabid. This is the sad case of a boy bitten by a dog who supposedly had an up to date vaccination record,but alas!!! tragedy struck..

The bumble bees use nicotine to fight off parasites.

Bumblebees that have been infected by parasites seek out flowers with nicotine in the nectar, with the aim to fight off the infection. Nicotine slows the progression of disease in infected bees but has adverse effects when consumed by healthy bees. The bumblebees are not the only animal that uses nicotine as a defense mechanism, the house sparrows also relies on nicotine to fight off infection by using cigarette butts in their nests to ward off mites. Bumblebees infected with parasite always chose sugar solution with nicotine in it than one without, infected bumblebees that consumed nicotine delayed the progress of the infection for a few days, showing lower levels of parasites than those that had not taken the nicotine laced sugar solution.

Sugar treat for bees creates a positive emotion state.

Scientists have discovered that when bumblebees drink a small droplet of really sweet sugar water, they behave like they are in a positive emotion-like state.The results published in the journal Science shows that after bumblebees drink a small droplet of really sweet sugar water, they behave like they are in a positive emotion-like state. Biologists at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) findings suggest that insects have states that fit the criteria of emotions and open up new avenues for research into positive emotions in relatively simple nervous systems. The researchers trained bees to find food at a blue flower and no food at a green flower, and then tested the bees on a new blue-green flower. Bees that drank a small droplet of sugar water prior to the test took less time to land on the ambiguous-coloured flower. The other experiments showed that this behavior wasn't due to bees just getting more excited or searching faster. This indicates that the sweet sugar water may be causing a positive emotion-like state in bees, similar to humans and other animals.

Machine learning can help stop food poisoning by predicting bacteria strain.

A study carried out by researchers at the University of Edinburgh's Roslin Institute and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences which focused on harmful strains of E. coli bacteria could help public health officials to target interventions and reduce risk to human health. The study showed that machine learning can predict strains of bacteria likely to cause food poisoning outbreaks, the researchers used software that compares genetic information from bacterial samples isolated from both animals and people. The software learns the DNA signatures that are associated with E. coli samples that have caused outbreaks of infection in people. It can then pick out the animal strains that have these signatures, which are therefore likely to be a threat to human health. The E. coli strains live in the guts of people and animals without causing illness but E. coli O157 causes more serious human infections. Cows carry E. coli O157 and serve as the main reservoir for this toxic bacteria. The animals excrete the bacteria in their faeces but do not become ill. This makes it difficult to spot which herds and animals are carrying strains that are likely to cause disease in people. The team trained the software on DNA sequences from strains isolated from cattle herds and human infections in the UK and the US. Once trained, the computer is able to predict whether an E. coli strain is likely to have come from a cow or a person. The team used the approach to predict that less than ten percent of the E. coli O157 cattle strains are likely to have the potential to cause human disease. Interventions to stop the spread of the disease by use of vaccines could be targeted at herds with these strains to minimize the risk of outbreaks in people. This study shows the potential of machine learning approaches for identifying these strains early and prevent outbreaks of this infectious disease.

Lagos to hold maiden edition of food security summit.

The Lagos State Government has concluded plans to organize a world class summit, tagged: ‘The Lagos Food Security Summit and Exhibition.’ This is in furtherance of its commitment to optimally explore its agricultural value chain potentials and ensure food security for its teeming populace, The Special Adviser to the Governor on Food Security, Mr Sanni Okanlawon at a news briefing at Alausa, in Ikeja, Lagos, Southwest Nigeria on Tuesday said that that the summit was being organized to institutionalize a food security framework that would guarantee sustainable food security for its growing population. “The summit which is scheduled to hold at the Lagos Airport Hotel, Ikeja from Thursday 10th to Friday 11th November, 2016 is designed to realign emerging realities with new global trends on food safety, food processing, food storage, food handling, funding of agri-business and agric-insurance”. Okanlawon added that the summit, with the theme: “Actualizing Sustainable Food Security in Lagos: A New Comprehensive Agenda,” will attract major stakeholders from the Agricultural sector and academics as well as prospective foreign and local investors, media, civil society and policy makers in government. This is a great way to invest “The Summit is expected to provide a veritable platform for discourse on various investment opportunities in agriculture and agro-allied business in the State with the aim of stimulating private investment in the sector and ultimately optimize its vast agro-processing and agro-allied potentials.” more The issue of food security is a global concern and more countries are turning to agriculture to change their economic terrain. Investing in agriculture and agribusiness ventures is a sure way to push any economy going south. The food summit

Thursday, September 29, 2016

The rabies scourge, action plan.

Rabies scourge: Health ministry to vaccinate dogs across Ghana. In commemorating the world rabies day ,Health minister Alex Segbefia says his ministry will begin a nationwide vaccination of dogs against rabies. The ministry is preparing to roll out the programme in 2017 when it would have submitted a vaccination budget to the Finance ministry. The one world one health approach to eliminate the scourge of rabies is a great idea.The fact that children are often victims of these scourge makes it even more important to forge an alliance to stop the virus. Dogs are the source of the vast majority of human rabies deaths, contributing up to 99% of all rabies transmissions to humans mostly in Asia and Africa. At least 40% of people who are bitten by suspect rabid animals are children under 15 years. The vaccination of dogs,cats and monkeys is a vital key to stop the scourge of the rabies virus,every responsible pet owner should vaccinate their pets against rabies. The annual vaccination of pets against rabies will prevent this threat to life of man and other animals which might act as carriers of the virus and further propagate the virus. Prevention by vaccination is much better and cheaper as lives will be saved because there is no cure for the disease. The war on rabies in Ghana is through a two pronged approach according to the health minister ;One is to increase the availability of vaccines to cure infected humans. The ministry has therefore ordered a new batch of vaccines .2) In a more pro-active approach to tackle rabies, the minister said “you must actually just vaccinate the dogs”. He said the ministry will go round region by region, identify and vaccinate dogs against rabies.He also said there is the need for a sensitization for dog-owners to tag their pets. In Nigeria,the scourge can be prevented by education,mass vaccination of dogs and provision of affordable human diploid anti rabies vaccine. The enforcement of stray dog laws and dog licensing with tags will go a long way to check the scourge of the rabies virus. Pet owners should be held accountable for the health status of their pets,and must show documentation as regarding vaccination status. Empowerment of animal control officers, especially at local government levels will help eliminate the scourge. The generation of adequate data as regarding number of dog per zone/local government/state will give a clear picture of our pet population, the area of concentration /major foci of these pets which will give assist in proper planning for budgeting for vaccination programmes. more #rabies #endrabies #savechildren #vaccinate #pets.

Gamifying rabies.

Rabies a deadly but preventable disease is a menace that our society has to eliminate and put steps in place to eradicate the virus completely. Rabies usually affect warm blooded animals such as dogs,cats,monkeys,raccoons,skunks,bats ,horses and cattle. The virus usually transferred through bites from an infected animal, various species have been linked to the transmission of virus with variations from country to country. The sylvatic cycle of the virus in the wild is actually what is propagating the virus in urban areas.The issue of interaction between wild and domesticated animals usually with stray dogs and cats as the major carriers of the virus is an identified route of infection. Pet importation has also opened up another route of possible transmission of the virus, pets should be quarantined and all records verified before allowing them in the country. The issue of stray dogs and cats is a risk factor here in Nigeria, most rabies cases in man have been traced to bites from strays mostly affecting children below 15 years of age. A recent case of a young boy bitten by a stray dog typifies what happens in most situations; Boy bitten by dog, the parents did not notify any hospital or health center. The boy started exhibiting signs of rabies such as hydrophobia,biting and licking body like a dog,signs of madness and in this state also bit the mother while trying to restrain the child. The boy was taken to the hospital at this stage,but it was too late for any intervention. The mother though bitten did not think anything of the incident until the child died when some questions were poised to her, now she is undergoing treatment also her baby as she is nursing currently. A simple washing the bite wound with soap and a lot of water before seeking medical care, would have saved the boy's life. The fight against rabies is not a one-man- show all hands must be on deck to support the movement. There are key steps to take to achieve a rabies free status; 1) Education about rabies and steps to take when bitten especially at the rural level. 2) Enforcing the laws on stray dogs and other animals. 3)Mass vaccination campaign with free vaccination for pets. 4) Provision of the human diploid vaccines in hospitals,primary health centers and mobile clinics at affordable rates to encourage people to seek medical attention when bitten by dogs,cats and monkeys. Rabies is preventable ,see how to stay safe with animals. Play this game

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

World Rabies Day.

The world rabies day comes up on the 28th September every year. This is an opportunity for pet owners to visit their veterinarian to vaccinate their pets. The scourge of rabies is so alarming that the all hands are on deck to kick rabies out. This year's celebration will be marked with a free vaccination exercise alongside a public lecture on the rabies virus ,steps to take when bitten by a dog and how to prevent been bitten by dogs. The one world one health approach will be used at the seminar as medical doctors will be on hand at the seminar to discuss the human angle of the rabies scourge. The seminar will be power packed as we will be doing an expose on the rabies scourge and also unveil some new initiatives to help eliminate the rabies virus.The free vaccination exercise in the Lagos island zone will be done at 2 points ; for pet lover and owners in Ajah area, the vaccination points are @ Abraham Adesanya estate starting at 10am and @ Ogombo community starting from 12 pm. All pet owners are encouraged to visit these points or visit our hospital; Ajah Animal hospital, opposite Bethel ministries @Ilaje bus stop. Pet owners can also visit Surulere veterinary hospital @46,Benson street,off Akerele. Dogs,cats and monkeys will be vaccinated and the lecture will also take place at the venue. Come and lets kick rabies out.

Sunday, September 25, 2016

Kenya revamping the dairy sector.

Dairy farmers in Kenya are positioning themselves to benefit from the commercialization of embryo transfer, a breeding technology being introduced by two firms in central and Rift Valley areas. The technology involves harvesting and implanting a developed embryo into a surrogate cow. Gakindu Dairy Co-operative Society in Mukurwe-ini sub-county of Nyeri and Makongi farm in Uasin Gishu County are piloting the technology which they say would considerably reduce costs of high quality dairy heifers. The project is expected to increase milk collection from current five to 30 litres per cow every day. Makongi firm has entered into a partnership with Invitro Brasil, one of the largest embryo companies in the world, to set up the first laboratory to offer farmers cheaper breeding options. The firm has built a laboratory which has a capacity to produce more than 20,000 embryos annually with a projected success rate of 45 per cent. This new technology will assist farmers to get quality heifers and embryos at reasonable prices. The technology entails removal of female eggs (oocytes) from a cow and transferring to a laboratory where it is fertilized with semen imported from Europe (Scandinavian countries or France) before it is placed into an incubator. The oocytes are extracted from the animal through the use of an improvised plastic tube and stored in a cool box before it is transferred to the lab more

why you should not drink raw milk.

Consumption of raw milk is still common among many farming communities. However, you can also either drink raw or semi-boiled milk.Consumption of raw or semi-cooked milk is on the rise thanks to of literature and old folk tales that its medicinal and so natural without preservatives. Raw milk consumers usually choose this for their family because they believe that it is a healthy food with good bacteria and enzymes, they often say it contains “good bacteria” better known as “probiotics” . Consumers are of the opinion that milk from grass-fed beef is safe and very nutritious,in fact there is a rising demand for milk from grassfed cow. A study in the late 90's which showed a possible relationship between grain feeding and E. coli infection in cattle, which led to a widespread belief that a grain diet causes a cow’s stomach to become acidic and promotes the growth of E. coli O157:H7 but further research showed that , E. coli O157:H7 is actually found in cattle kept in feedlots and cattle kept on pasture. Manure and milk from cows and goats that never ate grain have also tested positive for E. coli O157:H7 and other foodborne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella). Deer, rodents and feral pigs eating a natural diet sometimes also carry E. coli O157:H7 in their gut. There has been Several outbreaks recently in the US where E. coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter were linked to grass-fed cows or goats. Raw milk can carry harmful bacteria and other germs that can make you very sick or even kill you. While it is possible to get foodborne illnesses from many different foods, raw milk is one of the riskiest of all. Getting sick from raw milk can mean many days of diarrhea, stomach cramping, and vomiting. Less commonly, it can mean kidney failure, paralysis, chronic disorders, and even death. Fatal cases arising from milk poisoning result in severe or even life-threatening diseases, such as Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome, which can cause paralysis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, which can result in kidney failure and stroke. watch The risk of getting sick from drinking raw milk is greater for 1) young children. 2) elderly. 3)people with compromised immune systems, such as people with cancer, or HIV/AIDS. Although it is important to remember that healthy people of any age can get very sick or even die if they drink raw milk that is contaminated with harmful germs. Read

Agriculture and Nollywood.

Agriculture is now the bride many suitors are after; before the turn in, economy not many people ever thought of agriculture now various people from all walks of life are venturing into one or more aspects of agriculture. There is now a necessity to go back to the farms to ensure food security and revamp the economy, there is even a national call to spur us all to the "Green Land". The government at both the federal and state level are wooing more people into the line of agriculture not only for sustenance, but also as a major growth tool for the economy. Agriculture is an all-comers affair now, so come on board. If our former president,Olusegun Obasanjo can go and learn the nitty-gritty to be able to set up his farms then The value of agriculture has also enchanted some celebrities ,especially from the silver screen(NollyWood) who are diversifying to invest in agriculture and agribusiness ventures. The latest entrant is Funke Adesiyan who recently dumped acting for politics and now is back in the spotlight. The Ibadan-based actress has shared that her investment in Agriculture has started paying off and that she has been able to save enough money that will sustain her for the rest of her life through farming. The gorgeous actress who lives in a simple comfortable house, explained that her decision to venture into agriculture was a choice she had to make, either to buy a house or buy hectares of land for farming. She chose the latter, and invested in agriculture. This is how to start Agriculture could be small medium or large scale depending on your capacity but whatever your level, you can always start small and grow from there. Thinking of #agriculture #urban agriculture #agribusiness? See

Cat cuddling and cat-scratch disease.

A new study reveals that , cuddling a cat could give you an infection that could even kill you.The infection linked to cat scratches is aptly termed Cat-scratch disease, which can be fatal in some cases. Cat-scratch disease is an illness that results in intense fever, headaches, pustules and inflamed lymph nodes. The infection can progress drastically in rare instances leading to complications of the brain or heart and even result in death. "Cat-scratch disease, causes a significant number of annual infections, some of which can lead to encephalitis as well as endocarditis. Humans can risk contracting the disease just by kissing or cuddling cats, or by being scratched or bitten by them. The illness is caused by a bacteria called Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted to cats by fleas. According to a survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), noted kittens and stray cats were especially susceptible to carrying the harmful bacteria. The report showed that each year, about 12,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with cat-scratch disease and 500 require hospitalization. Cat-scratch is preventable if hygiene plays a part in animal handling,interactions and proper pet care. Cat owners should take the following precautions; 1) wash their hands after petting their cats. 2 ) clean bites and scratches with soap and water . 3)prevent contact of your cats with strays. 4) regular flea control. When bitten or scratched by your cat, wash area with soap and water and visit your doctor immediately.

Saturday, September 24, 2016

Five-star pig pens: In China, a novel strategy in the war against superbugs.

Shen Jian-Ping's antibiotic-free pig farm outside of Shanghai, biosecurity is something of an obsession. Vehicles entering the property are disinfected with a chlorine tire bath and alcohol spray, animals drink sterilized water and the closest visitors will get to seeing a live hog is via a TV in the visitors' center. The wiry 46-year-old has spent $700,000 (4.7 million yuan) giving roomier, better-ventilated digs to his swine, with three full-time veterinarians to help keep the 465-sow herd healthy. "It's like the piglets are now living in a villa that's clean and comfortable," Shen said as he sipped green tea on the patio outside his office. "And it smells much better." Antibiotics have been routinely fed to livestock to prevent disease and spur growth in dozens of industrialized countries for decades. But in China, pig feed typically contains multiple types of bacteria-killing drugs that are used in far greater volumes, said Ying Guang-Guo, professor of environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology with the Chinese Academy of Sciences in the southern city of Guangzhou. Chinese pigs consume about 19,600 metric tons of antibiotics annually through their feed, scientists estimated in a 2013 study. The average growing pig in China excretes 175 milligrams of antibiotics per day in its urine and feces, according to Ying's research. He extrapolated that across the nation's entire pig population to estimate that 2,460 tons of drugs are released annually. Those chemicals may then leach into water wells and streams, or contaminate manure used to fertilize vegetable fields. Traces have even been found in Shanghai drinking water and school kids. Pig farmers are largely unaware of the drug's importance or the need to restrict it, Shen said. "Most of them only wish to grow pigs faster," he said. That rankled with Shen, who traveled to Belgium and the Netherlands in 2011 to study how farmers there were raising hogs without antibiotics so he could try to replicate their methods back home. His initial attempt failed. Sixty percent, or more than 1,000, of his swine died in the first winter. "We didn't know how complicated it would be," said Shen, who said he obtained a distance-learning degree in poultry production from China Agricultural University. Marc Huon, a pig-management specialist in Belgium, was hired to redesign Shen's pigsty. The first priority, Huon said, was to give more space and better ventilation and to remove stress on the animals caused by temperature fluctuations. He also recommended a higher-protein diet based on a broader range of nutrients and the addition of supplements, including prebiotics to promote helpful intestinal bacteria. Water piped into the temperature-controlled barn has been filtered and purified with charcoal, and heated and irradiated to remove pathogens. "The water our pigs drink is better than the tap water in Shanghai-much better," Shen said. These days, mortality is 5-to-6 percent-much less than the 15 percent to 16 percent average on neighboring piggeries, he said. It takes Shen's pigs about eight months to reach the 250-300 pound (115-to-135 kilogram) target weight for slaughter. That's four to five weeks longer than pigs fed antibiotics and other growth promoters, according to Huon. The Belgian's nutrition plan emphasizes meat quality over weight gain. "It's just a copy and paste of what we are doing here,'' Huon said over the telephone from Belgium.more

South Africa Unveils Test-tube Buffalo, Plans IVF Rhino.

Almost 40 years after the first human test-tube baby was born, South African scientists have produced something bulkier: the first Cape buffalo brought into the world by in vitro fertilization (IVF). Pumelelo the buffalo bull calf was born on June 28 and was unveiled to the world this week at a game farm north of Johannesburg in South Africa's Limpopo province.The technique holds hope for far bigger and more endangered species such as the northern white rhino - only three of them are left on the planet. "This success is of major importance for the prospective breeding of endangered species, and that is the reason why we are undertaking this work," said Morne de la Rey, a veterinarian and the managing director of Embryo Plus, which specializes in bovine embryo transfers and semen collection, mostly for the cattle industry. Proud parents are biological mother and egg donor "Vasti" and sperm donor "Goliat", which is Afrikaans for Goliath - in his bulky case, no misnomer. The baby bull has a surrogate mother which has taken to him. He could grow to 1,000 kg (2,200 pounds) or more. Cape buffalos are notoriously bad-tempered and dangerous animals and Vasti was sedated when her oocytes, or egg cells, were extracted using a technique similar to that used on human donors. Game farming is big business in South Africa but those involved in the project said the main concern was conservation. "The object is certainly not to reproduce buffalo of superior genetics ... the goal is the conservation of species," said Frans Stapelberg, the owner of the farm where Pumelelo was born. The project will now focus on the northern white rhino and the trio who remain on the planet on the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. The San Diego Zoo is partnering with that effort.More

Bat Found Outside Irvine Shopping Center Tests Positive For Rabies

Bat Found Outside Irvine Shopping Center Tests Positive For Rabies: Once a person begins showing symptoms of having rabies, the disease is nearly always fatal.

The Future of Food: Shaping the Global Food System to Deliver Improved Nutrition and Health.

The world bears the triple burden of malnutrition: hunger; undernutrition due to insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals; and obesity due to unhealthy diets. Feeding people well is as important as feeding people enough; shaping food systems to deliver safe, nutritious and sustainable food should be a priority. Interventions for better nutrition and health need to change behavior across the production-to-consumption continuum. There is consensus that the food system should be able to feed a growing population and the 795 million people that go hungry every day.But food quality is equally important. Malnutrition and food-borne diseases impose large current and future human, economic, fiscal and social costs on countries. Key among these is child stunting, which reduces cognitive development and a person’s lifetime earnings. Over 165 million children under five are stunted due to chronic malnutrition. Contaminated food impacts one in ten people globally—around 420,000 people die from contaminated food each year. According to estimates, more than two billion people do not get all the vitamins and minerals they need. Meanwhile another two billion people struggle with being overweight or obese—many of them in developing countries. Shaping food systems to deliver improved nutrition and health requires a combination of improved knowledge, sound policies, regulations, and investments across the production- to-consumption continuum. The goal is to stimulate behavioral change in food producers, post-harvest handlers, food processors, food distributors, and consumers. Women will also play a key role because they often link food systems and household nutrition. Interventions must include reducing food loss through improved storage, fortifying foods with nutrients, expanding nutrition education, improving food labeling and modernizing food safety regulations. A paper by the World Bank explains why the global food system needs to prioritize improved nutrition and health and deliver nutritious, safe and sustainable food. see it

Post-Ebola, West Africans flock back to bushmeat.

Post-Ebola, West Africans flock back to bushmeat and scientists are warning about the risk implication. As the deadly outbreak of Ebola has subsided, people in several West African countries are flocking to eat bushmeat again after restrictions were lifted on the consumption of wild animals like hedgehogs and cane rats. But some health experts call it a risky move. Ivory Coast, which neighbors two of the three countries where Ebola killed more than 11,300 people since December 2013, lifted its ban on wild animal meat this month. The meat of squirrel, deer, fruit bats and rats has long been a key source of protein for many in the region, but it is also a potential source of the Ebola virus. Though bushmeat hasn't officially been linked to West Africa's recent Ebola outbreak, the deadliest in history, infections in Africa have been associated with hunting, butchering and processing meat from infected animals, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. The Ebola virus is then spread through direct contact with the bodily fluids of victims or corpses. From a public health standpoint, this decision is unfortunate at best," said Ben Neuman, a virologist at Texas A&M University-Texarkana. "The only source of Ebola in the world is infected animals, and there's good evidence that some of these animals, like bats, can be infected for a long time." However, not all bushmeat is equal, he said. Bats pass on the virus and travel far. Some types of rodents can get the virus. Primate meat is likely not as much of a danger, given that they succumb to Ebola more quickly than people. "There's a good case for banning the sale of bats as bushmeat. The other sources are a lesser risk," Neuman said. "I don't want to see it all legal, but we don't want to see people go hungry, either." continue

AGRIBUSINESS: Snail housing.

AGRIBUSINESS: Snail housing. Snail farming as an urban agriculture is simple and easy to start and manage. The snails can be housed in wooden troughs, vats, wooden cages,plastics ,tyres and garden. The list of housing innovation is endless, so let your creative juices flow. AGRIBUSINESS: Snail housing. Take a look at this wooden pen; simple, easy and fits the front porch easily.The plastic is also so super easy to use. #urbanagriculture #snails #homebusiness #femalefarmer. See

Agribusiness; farm fresh foods.

Echbee foods, a subsidiary of Echbee vet ventures dealers of hygienically packaged beef, mutton,lamb,,eggs and farm fresh vegetables. The vegetables are fresh and clean ,look The animals are carefully selected and slaughtered in an hygienic environment to ensure food safety. Here are some of our products; Available in supermarkets and store near you. Order yours today. more

A veterinary doctor and director of an animal shelter in Taiwan commits suicide.

A veterinary doctor and director of an animal shelter in Taiwan has reportedly committed suicide after she became distraught with the number of dogs she was having to euthanize. Jian Zhicheng was the director of the Xinwu Animal Protection and Education Centre looking after animals at the shelter, the People's Daily Online reports. She had allegedly become upset after animal rights activists had sent her threatening messages and even calling her a 'butcher with beauty' when it was revealed on a television programme the number of animals she had been forced to put to sleep. The issue of stress in the workplace is not limited to the veterinarian, various organizations are checking on their employee's mental state and even incorporating colleagues to the programme to ensure its a success. more Jian, who is reported to be 31 years old, worked at the state-run shelter for some years and was described as a kind-hearted and dedicated person by her colleagues. She worked helping bring sick and stray animals back to health before helping find them a new home. According to reports, she strives to help re-home the dogs and also tried to promote adoption instead of purchasing however she later revealed that she had been forced to euthanize 700 dogs in just two years. more

Gujarat doctor gives girl veterinary drug.

Parents of a seven-year-old girl in Bapod on the outskirts of Vadodara lodged a complaint against a doctor on Thursday alleging he had prescribed her a medicine meant for animals. Vibha Chandwani felt nauseous and suffered a bout of vomiting but recovered as she was treated on time. The incident took place eight days ago. "On September 14, Vibha's mother took her to Dr Jagdish Shah's clinic on Waghodia Road seeking treatment for head lice. Shah examined the girl and gave her a PIPZET H syrup that he had in the clinic. He also prescribed her a lotion to be applied on the scalp," police said. The girl consumed the syrup that night and vomited after a while. The next day, her father Jitendra Chandwani examined the syrup bottle and noticed a warning on its label which said,'Only for animal use'. He immediately took her to another doctor. Cops visited the clinic on Thursday and questioned the doctor. "Dr Shah admitted to have given her the syrup, but claimed that he wasn't aware that it was only for animal use. We seized two more bottles of the syrup from his clinic," a police officer said. continue

Focus on girls and women to achieve sustainable development goals.(SDGs)

The world is filled with successful women and many great power brokers are women so its only logical that if you want to make a change in the world, in a system ,in a community and in offices empower women, train the girls. The sustainable goals of the UN depicts this fact clearly, we need to focus on girls and women to make these goals a reality. A foremost leader and former prime minister said "If you want something said, ask a man; if you want something done, ask a woman.( Margaret Thatcher), here is another great woman" Any time women come together with a collective intention, it's a powerful thing. Whether it's sitting down making a quilt, in a kitchen preparing a meal, in a club reading the same book, or around the table playing cards, or planning a birthday party, when women come together with a collective intention, magic happens."( Phylicia Rashad) United Nations General Assembly begins a new session, the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is high on their agenda. The SDGs, which took effect earlier this year, have been described as “a universal push to transform the world. Women are powerful drivers of economic growth, but they confront significant legal obstacles and discriminatory practices that constrain their workforce participation. Women entrepreneurs have limited access to credit, markets, training and networks. Today many companies recognize the role of women in economic participation is a core business strategy and are increasingly supporting women’s economic progress through their value chains, supply chains, and training programs and leadership development. Gender equality and women’s empowerment are essential for the realization of the SDGs. Continue

Friday, September 23, 2016

Snap chat launches glasses with Camera.

Eye witness news,sneak preview just got simple and super easy with the release by Snap chat glasses with camera. The rate of crime, especially robbery ,kidnapping and illegal trading can be easily stopped without any harm to the eye witness. A case scenario, you are walking by an alley or on the road you can capture the event ,upload and alert the necessary authorities without anybody hunting you. Messaging app firm Snapchat has announced its first gadget - sunglasses with a built-in camera. The device, which the company is calling Spectacles, will go on sale later this year priced at $130 (£100). The glasses will record up to 10 seconds of video at a time. According to the creator Evan Spiegel ,"It’s one thing to see images of an experience you had, but it’s another thing to have an experience of the experience. It was the closest I’d ever come to feeling like I was there again". continue

Pig ; an animal model in biomedical research.

A report documented in the Nature Microbiology, shows the many types of bacteria that inhabit the gut of pig and how they are important to health and disease. This knowledge of genes of these bacteria and their function therefore constitutes the first step towards a more comprehensive understanding of how bacteria in the gut affect health and disease. Pig is a main livestock species for food production worldwide and is also widely used as an animal model in biomedical research. The researchers analyzed stool samples from 287 pigs representing different breeds and selected pig lines from 11 different farms in France, China and Denmark. The researchers identified 7.7 million genes and identified a large number of known and unknown bacteria. The results showed clear country dependent differences, reflecting differences in farm systems and antibiotics supplementation. The results further illustrate how age, gender, and pig genetics are associated with differences in the composition of bacteria in the gut. The results show the impact of prohibition of the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in Denmark and France , as it seems to have reduced the load of antibiotics resistance genes in the French and Danish pigs, but some pigs in these countries harbor genes conferring resistance to a large number of antibiotics. The knowledge of the many genes in the gut bacteria will be of importance in order to use pigs as a model to elucidate the role of bacteria in relation to many human diseases, but will also be an important tool in the quest towards more sustainable knowledge-based pig farming with the need to combine feed efficiency with resistance to disease, while reducing the use of antibiotics, a main concern in relation to risks of multi-drug resistance in humans and animals.

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Poultry and the superbug MRSA.

A study has shown that novel form of the dangerous superbug Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can spread to humans through consumption or handling of contaminated poultry The research, published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases, shows that poultry may be a source of human exposure to MRSA, a superbug which can cause serious infections and even death. The study focuses on a special newly identified strain of MRSA associated with poultry. MRSA is often found in chickens, pigs and other food animals. Researchers know that farmers, farm workers, veterinarians and others working directly with livestock are at risk of MRSA infections, however the study shows that people with no exposure to livestock are becoming colonized and infected with this new strain of poultry-associated MRSA -- most likely by eating or handling contaminated poultry meat. This poultry-associated MRSA may be more capable of transmitting from food to people and as MRSA continues to evolve, it may spread from animals to people in new ways. Early research suggests that modern farming practices, that involve giving food animals low doses of antibiotics to spur their growth and compensate for overcrowding and unsanitary living conditions led to the rising tide of superbugs, like the new strain of MRSA identified in this study. The fact that food inspectors don't typically test poultry and other food products for MRSA contamination and instead are focused on Salmonella and other more typical food-borne pathogens may be the reason why the link has remained undetected until now. There is a need to expand the number of pathogens that are tested for in the food supply chain, and an urgent need for international bodies to enforce the ban on unnecessary use of antibiotics on industrial farms around the world. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock must be abolished to prevent emergence of new, and more virulent strains of livestock-associated MRSA which will pose a much greater threat to human health.continue

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Growth drivers of Chinese pet food industry.

Pet Food Global Market Focus Webinar Series: Growth Drivers of the Chinese Pet Food Market.This exclusive webinar is coming up next week on Tuesday, September 27, at 9 a.m. Central (Chicago). Join colleagues as industry expert Pushan Tagore identifies key factors currently driving the Chinese pet food market and provides valuable analysis on current and forecasted growth in China. Reserve your space now for convenient access to next week’s presentation, now Meet the speaker ;Pushan Tagore ,Vice President, Global Marketing, Pet Care GfK.

Ghana making millions from snail farming ..

Ghanaians are rushing into snail farming because it's inexpensive and a very lucrative business contributing to about US $ 4 million per annum from America as imports. Ghana exported about 620 kilograms of snails in 1994 and 1,050 kilograms to the Netherlands and the United States respectively. Snail farming in Ghana has become such a lucrative business that agricultural experts are offering professional advice to prospective farmers to enable them to harvest more yield for the local and international market. Snails for food Consumption of snails in Ghana, a century old practice found within the Akan tribe, has prompted almost every Ghanaian throughout the country to consume this delicacy as a staple food well known to have nutritional value. The snails are also important source of foreign exchange, the meat is not only a delicacy but is a component of what the rural Ghanaian will call a complete meal. The consumption level of snails by Ghanaians is over 15,000 tonnes, however not even a quarter emanates from the country, about 13,000 comes from neighboring Cote d'Ivoire. These positive descriptions of snails and their economic value by experts have led to the snail farming rush in the country. Farmers are interested in the rearing of snails because of its rapid turn over and the relative ease of rearing. A lot of entrepreneurs are looking for lean startups to beat recession, training are conducted every time,to help farmers.You can join the next class by sending name and email address to 08023003455,you will learn the nitty gritty. Snail farmers always make huge profits during off season because in average about four snails in size which weigh between 100-150 grams can make profits of up to 50,000 cedis in the local market. In rainy seasons the same quantity can sell for as low as 5.000 cedis. The challenge for Ghanaian farmers is to be able to make available 120- footer container every month to meet the maximum demand for the Europeans. Learn how to trade snails for dollars The market is very large for exportation of snails,join the gold rush ,sign up for the training Snails have become popular dishes in Europe and France, were they feature very prominently. For instance, France imports the snails from Ghana and adds value to them for exportation elsewhere- mainly to other European countries such as the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Turkey, Greece and Canada. more

African women are turning snails into gold.

Snails are known as a delicacy in the U.S. and in some European countries, but they have long been a staple of the traditional diet in the African nation of Ghana. They're used in everything from soups to kebabs, and Ghanaians consume some 33 million pounds of snails per year, but demand far outweighs local supply. Now a pair of scientists are teaching women how to raise snails as a renewable food source and as a source of economic independence. Environmental scientist Mildred Quaye and agricultural biotechnologist Dr. Lydia Quansah have been setting up women-run snail farms in rural areas of Ghana. Their project is funded by a grant from Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment. The Israeli university has also provided instructors and students to work on projects in Ghana and other sub-Saharan African nations for nearly six decades. Heliculture is the science and occupation of raising snails for food, and the practice is quickly becoming popular for occupational training of African women. Snails are relatively easy to raise and feed on vegetables and fruits. They are also hermaphrodites, which means that both male and female snails reproduce. see more Snails are not difficult to raise and manage because they feed on kitchen leftovers and leafy greens from the field,While snails can live up to 10 years in their natural habitat, it only takes two to three months before young embryonic snails are ready for sale to the market. That means it’s only a short time before the farmers begin to see a return on their investment. more

AGRIBUSINESS :Snail farming the hidden goldmine.

AGRIBUSINESS :Snail farming the hidden goldmine. Snail farming is a hidden goldmine ,although there are of various species peculiar to certain regions. The Achatina fulica is a species of large land snail that belong in the Achatinidae family. It is also known as one of the giant African snail or giant African land snail. The giant African snail is native to East Africa, and can be traced back to Kenya and Tanzania. AGRIBUSINESS :Snail farming the hidden goldmine. The achatina fulica is well suited for the west African region as its rugged,adaptable and grows better than A. marginata. The Achatina fulica mates once and can lay eggs continuously for 5 years. The snail lay up to 400 eggs in various clutches 2-3 times a year.The snails are good fluid savers,making maximum use of water provided. Snail rearing also referred to as heliculture is an agribusiness that has great potential,not only locally but internationally. Snails can be reared in urban setting without any environmental hazard or pollution and most importantly its a lean startup venture,with little or minimal overhead and great profit margin.Snails can be reared in cheap boxes,old tyres,plastic bins,crates and any enclosure you can innovate as long as the snails are secured from pests and harsh environmental conditions. AGRIBUSINESS :Snail farming the hidden goldmine.The housing unit can be simple to complex depending on scale of production and level of production. Read about various housing options here Feeding snails are also relatively cheap, irrespective of level of production.The snails can thrive on common household waste or feed. They can be fed leaves,roots of certain plants and sometimes formulated ration to boost production. These are the common feed sources Biosecurity and handling are so important when you are rearing snails. The sand in the snailery must be heat treated,before you put it in the snailery and the sand must be raked everyday to remove left over feed and also to turn the soil as this stimulates growth.Snail farming is a hidden goldmine,very few actually get it right and make money. Changing of the soil at regular intervals is very important, calcium supplement is very essential for proper growth and regular supply is necessary. The wetting of soil is also important,to keep the house moist but not waterlogged This is how to start an agribusiness raising snails with 20,000 Naira and make 1,257,750 naira profit. Get mature snails @ 200 naira for 50 pcs.......10,500 naira construction of wooden boxes or plastic boxes or plastic cages ........5,000 naira. Feeding....................................4,000 naira. miscellaneous./chalk....... .......... ..500 naira. The production phase; 1 snail hatch about 400 eggs in a year,thus 50 snails .....20,000 eggs. At 95% hatachability.......19,000 eggs. Assuming 5% mortality during rearing......,<950 snails= 18,050 hatchlings. Sell each hatch-ling @ 70 naira/pcs...... 1,263,500 naira. Sell adult for 300 naira @5% mortality.......14,250 naira. Total............................1,277,750 naira. Profit.....income - expenses....=1,277,750 - 20,000 =1,257,750 naira.

Gamifying my practice.

The game world has taken over all major facets of the economy,with more professionals bringing fun and games to table to solve problems. Games aside from taking the stress of work off you, it creates an avenue to look at the problem on a different level and envision the solution in a fun and relaxed atmosphere. The game shaking practice has evolved, play now

Flat faced dogs and associated health risks.

Dog lovers should refrain from buying animals with flat-faced features, because they are prone to a lot of health problems. Dog lovers are shifting to breeds such as pugs, bulldogs, shih-tzus and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels because they consider them cute and fashionable ,not considering that these dogs often suffer from a wide range of health problems. The common problems are eye ulcers and severe breathing difficulties which usually result in a lot of suffering for the animals and emotional torture for the owners. These flat faced breeds are usually abandoned by some owners when they can no longer bear the weight.The pugs and bull dogs are super sensitive to the slightest changes in temperature and other environmental factors.The sniffling and constant sneezes of pugs can be annoying,likewise the huffing and puffing of the bulldogs makes you feel so sad as every breath is a struggle. These flat faced dogs need extra care especially in cases of anesthesia before surgery, though they are cute their health issues are not appealing at all. This is how a client lost her bulldog in a jiffy; she had gone to visit a friend and she left her dogs in the car. She had an Alsatian and a bulldog in the car with the windows down and it was early in the morning after gym, when she came back 45 minutes later,the bull dog was dead. The British veterinary association warns ,A pug in the clinic today

Penguins die following malaria attack.

The Wiltshire attraction has announced that 24 Humboldt penguins passed away due to an outbreak of Avian Malaria in the colony.The disease was passed on by a mosquito,Avian Malaria has chronic side affects and "heartbroken" zookeepers are battling hard to save the remaining ten birds. The Humboldt penguin is originally from South America, with the breed normally found around coastal areas of Peru and Chile.Darren Beasley Head of Animal Operations at the safari park says it's a difficult time for all concerned: "Although our penguins are a tough bunch this has subsequently led to problems with the remaining group, leading to a very distressing time for everyone involved in their care. Our team of keepers are absolutely devastated - they have looked after the penguins each and every day, with most of the penguins having been hand-reared by the team since hatching." "Despite the best efforts of our team and with expert advice from other collections around the country who have previously experienced the same tragedy, we have still been unable to save a large amount of these incredible and popular aquatic birds." more

Genetically engineered bacteria prevent mosquitoes from transmitting malaria.

According to a study published by PNAS,the genetically engineered bacteria were 98 percent effective in reducing the malaria parasite burden in mosquitoes. The study shows that genetically modified bacterium commonly found in the mosquito's midgut, this parasite that causes malaria in people does not survive in mosquitoes carrying the modified bacterium. The bacterium, Pantoea agglomerans, was modified to secrete proteins toxic to the malaria parasite, but the toxins do not harm the mosquito or humans. The aim of the study is to prevent the mosquito from spreading malaria to people,malaria kills over 800,000 people every year many of which are children. The genetically engineered P. agglomerans strains inhibited development of the deadliest human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei by up to 98 percent within the mosquito. The proportion of mosquitoes carrying parasites (prevalence) decreased by up to 84 percent.

Why mosquitoes prefer to bite humans.

A study published in the PLOS Genetics shows that mosquitoes show a preference for humans because of a chromosomal arrangement,so if the genetic basis of bite is eliminated or transferred to other breeds than the scourge of malaria will be erased. The rates of malaria transmission depend on whether mosquitoes bite humans or animals, and whether they rest after that meal in an area where they will encounter pesticides. Anopheles arabiensis,the species of mosquito the primary vector of malaria in east Africa due to its broader host range and the frequent use of pesticide-treated bed nets, which kill other species that live closely with humans. The use of population genomics has established an association between human feeding and a specific chromosomal rearrangement in the major east African malaria vector. The use of genetics to better understand and track mosquito behavior will improve local control strategies and this knowledge will also promote the elimination of malaria's spread, such as genetically modifying mosquitoes to prefer cattle over people. The researchers sequenced the genomes of 23 human-fed and 25 cattle-fed mosquitoes collected indoors and outdoors from the Kilobero Valley in Tanzania. They identified a genetic component that contributes to the mosquito's host choice but not its choice of resting place.

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

The war on routine use of antibiotics in food animals moves to eateries .

The threat of antibiotic resistance is so real, world leaders are meeting and deliberating on ways to stop the routine use of antibiotics in farm animals to ensure food safety alongside protect public health and animal welfare as well. The risks associated with routine use of antibiotics during production is a major source of concern because of the myriad of problems linked to this practice, consumers are on the list of those advocating the ban of antibiotics . Roughly 80% of the antibiotics sold in the United States are used on animals, the Natural Resources Defense Council noted, explaining that the drugs are frequently used to increase growth in animals and help them survive in dirty, crowded conditions. An annual Chain Reaction report scored Starbucks and Dunkin' Donuts Fs , a collaboration between groups including the Consumers Union (a division of Consumer Reports) and the Center for Food Safety. The report details the use of antibiotic-free meat and poultry at 25 top chain restaurants. Other restaurants that received Fs included Chili's, Domino's, Olive Garden, Applebee's, Denny's, KFC and IHOP. The report notes that Starbucks and Dunkin' Donuts do not serve any meat produced without routine use of antibiotics and were not fully transparent about their practices.When animals are giving low-level doses day after day culminates in high doses of these drugs in animal tissue ,these intensive use of antibiotics in animal agriculture is a key culprit in the rise of antibiotic-resistant infections in humans, posing a serious threat to human health. Consumers are willing to pay more for antibiotic-free meat, according to investigation of poultry prices in Denmark after the ban of antibiotics revealed that farmers experienced no net cost changes because the price of extra livestock feed was cushioned by the savings from not purchasing antibiotics.Read

Monday, September 19, 2016

Emerging pathogens in meat and poultry.

Meat and poultry are among the leading vehicles for foodborne illnesses around the world and are responsible for sickening million of people worldwide.Outbreaks from foodborne diseases are widely reported and are responsible for several recalls in several countries. These pathogens cause these infections are typically zoonotic and can be introduced at any point along the food chain,starting from when the animal is raised, to the day of slaughter and beyond, up to the processing to consumption. A significant number of pathogens can be transmitted to humans through meat and poultry, and the risks have changed over time. The public health threat posed by some pathogens has diminished, while others have persisted for decades. New, often more virulent strains of existing disease agents continue to emerge, along with previously unknown pathogens such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) while some emerging pathogens, such as E. coli O157:H7, have eventually developed into major food safety concerns. The food safety measures to allay public health concerns must be adaptable systems that are able to detect, assess, and control both emerging and established risks. continue

Insecticide treatment of cattle to kill sand flies and combat leishmaniasis.

A research published in the PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases shows that spraying insecticides on the cattle will prevent the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis as the causative sand flies will be destroyed . An estimated 500,000 human infections and 50,000 deaths annually, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the second most prevalent parasitic killer, after malaria. Leishmania parasites are transmitted through the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. Combating the insects by treating cattle with fipronil, will substantially reduce VL in areas where people and cattle live in close proximity. Fipronil is an insecticide with a long half-life. The insecticide remains in the system of animals for several weeks to several months, dependening on the concentration administered. Fipronil does not have any adverse effect onb mammals at low concentrations, but when fed to cattle at low concentrations in drug form, can kill adult blood-feeding sand flies and sand fly larvae that feed on the cattle feces. The use of Fipronil to control sand flies will last for several months following a single treatment,coupled with the practice of indoor spraying. Female sand flies primarily bite humans and cattle especially at night, and after sand fly eggs hatch, the larvae feed on organic matter, the most abundant source being cow patties. The means of control of sand flies involves indoor residual spraying with pyrethroid insecticides, but exposure is normally possible in rural dwellers that sleep outside especially during the hot months.

A patch that delivers drug, gene, and light-based therapy to tumor sites.

Its estimated that one in 20 people will develop colorectal cancer in their lifetime, making it the third-most prevalent form of the disease in the U.S. In Europe, it is the second-most common form of cancer. The most widely used first line of treatment is surgery, but this can result in incomplete removal of the tumor. Cancer cells can be left behind, potentially leading to recurrence and increased risk of metastasis. Indeed, while many patients remain cancer-free for months or even years after surgery, tumors are known to recur in up to 50 percent of cases. Conventional therapies used to prevent tumors recurring after surgery do not sufficiently differentiate between healthy and cancerous cells, leading to serious side effects. A research published in the journal Nature Materials shows how researchers at MIT describe an adhesive patch that can stick to the tumor site, either before or after surgery, to deliver a triple-combination of drug, gene, and photo (light-based) therapy. The patch has a triple combination therapy locally at the tumor site, and this will increase the efficacy of the treatment. The general approach to cancer treatment is the use of systemic, therapies such as chemotherapy drugs, but the lack of specificity of anticancer drugs means they produce undesired side effects when systemically administered.This coupled with the fact that only a small portion of the drugs reaches the tumor site makes this approach ineffective. The researchers made a triple-therapy hydrogel patch, which can be used to treat tumors locally. This is particularly effective as it can treat not only the tumor itself but any cells left at the site after surgery, preventing the cancer from recurring or metastasizing in the future. Firstly, the patch contains gold nanorods, which heat up when near-infrared radiation is applied to the local area. This is used to thermally kill or destroy, the tumor.These nanorods are also equipped with a chemotherapy drug, which is released when they are heated, to target the tumor and its surrounding cells. Finally, gold nanospheres that do not heat up in response to the near-infrared radiation are used to deliver RNA, or gene therapy to the site, in order to silence an important oncogene in colorectal cancer. Oncogenes are genes that can cause healthy cells to transform into tumor cells. The researchers envision that a clinician could remove the tumor, and then apply the patch to the inner surface of the colon, to ensure that no cells that are likely to cause cancer recurrence remain at the site. As the patch degrades, it will gradually release the various therapies. The patch can also serve as a neoadjuvant, a therapy designed to shrink tumors prior to their resection. When the treatment was done in mice, 40 % of cases where the patch was not applied after tumor removal, the cancer returned. When the patch was applied after surgery, the treatment resulted in complete remission,and even when the tumor was not removed, the triple-action therapy alone was enough to destroy it.


The U.S. Public Interest Research Group (PIRG) delivered a letter signed by leaders in the American public health and medical communities to the U.S. Delegation of the United Nations today urging them to push for international action to stop the misuse of antibiotics on livestock and poultry. The letter is in anticipation of the UN General Assembly’s first ever high-level meeting on antibiotic resistance this week. “Global leaders have failed to act in a unified way to protect life-saving antibiotics. Now we find ourselves at the cliff’s edge—just a step away from a post-antibiotic era. It’s time to act,” said Dr. Lance Price, Director of the Antibiotic Resistance Action Center, Milken Institute School of Public Health at George Washington University. “We need a global agreement to protect medically important antibiotics from overuse and misuse in industrial farming and in human medicine.” The UN doesn’t convene high level meetings on health issues lightly, having done so only a handful of times in the past. Antibiotic resistance warrants the spotlight. A study conducted for the United Kingdom estimates that unless immediate action is taken, drug resistant infections could kill more people worldwide per year by 2050 than cancer does today. Although antibiotics are sometimes misused in human medicine, the widespread overuse of the drugs on livestock and poultry has also been connected to the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In the United States, approximately 70% of medically important antibiotics sold are for use on livestock and poultry. The drugs are often given routinely to animals that aren’t sick to promote growth and prevent disease common in unsanitary conditions. This overuse can encourage the growth of antibiotic resistant bacteria, which can spread to people through contaminated food, human to animal contact, air born dust and water runoff. “These miracles of modern medicine are slipping through our fingers,” said Patrice Snow, U.S. PIRG Antibiotics Program Director. “In order to preserve antibiotics for the future, we need to stop overusing and misusing them on healthy farm animals.” more

Sunday, September 18, 2016

Scientists create live offspring without a female egg.

A study documented in journal of Natures Communication has shown how scientists have been able to breed produce offspring's from 2 males.The experiment by the University of Bath rewrites years of biology teaching and could pave the way for a baby to be born from the DNA of two men. It was always thought that only a female egg could spark the changes in a sperm required to make a baby, because an egg forms from a special kind of cell division in which just half the number of chromosomes are carried over.Sperm cells form in the same way, so that when a sperm and egg meet they form a full genetic quota, with half our DNA coming from our mother and half from our father. Scientists have shown embryos could be created from cells which carry all their chromosomes which means that, in theory, any cell in the human body could be fertilized by a sperm.Three generations of mice have already been created using the technique and are fit and healthy and now researchers are planning to test out the theory using skin cells. The experiment involved, scientists stimulating an egg into developing into an embryo using special chemicals which makes the egg think it has been fertilized. Technically the cells in an embryo copy themselves completely when they divide, and so mirror closely most other cells in the body, such as skin cells. When scientists injected the embryos with sperm, they grew into healthy mice which went on to produce their own litters. The technique shows a possibility for gay men to have children, whose DNA was half of each of the couple, although a woman would still need to act as a surrogate to carry the baby.It also amplifies the possibility that a man could even fertilize his own cells to produce offspring containing a mixture of genes inherited from him and his parents. Women can also benefit from this technique, women whose fertility has been erased by cancer drugs or radiotherapy to have their own children. The current method is for eggs to be frozen before cancer therapy and later fertilized in an IVF clinic, but nothing can be done once the eggs have been lost may be due to aging . This technique will also help women to continue having children later in life even after menopause. Its known that women are born with all their eggs but these degrade with age, which makes conception more difficult in later life. The possibility of fertilizing new skin cells to produce off springs will improve and increase the chances of having a baby at any age depending on the health status of the mother. The animal world will also have a piece of the cake as conception using sperm cells with non-egg cells(primed skin cells) will prolong the lines of certain species as endangered species will not be a problem since the need to recover eggs is erased. The preservation of certain breeds,with pure lines will be possible and with immense benefits.

Friday, September 16, 2016

The link between flowers and bacteria transmission in wild bees.

A study has shown that multiple flower and wild bee species share several of the same types of bacteria,as these bacteria may play important roles in bee health. The research, published in the journal Microbial Ecology, shows for the first time that multiple flower and wild bee species share several of the same types of bacteria. Wild bees although not as widely studied as honey bees or bumblebees, are a critical in the pollination puzzle. Wild bees could become more important because of the decline in numbers of honey bees due to colony collapse disorder, which has resulted in the loss of more than 10 million hives in the past decade. The team collected wild bees and flowers from 2 locations,they simulated bee nests by drilling holes into wood and placing these nests in fields with wildflowers,because wild bees naturally nest in abandoned holes in trees created by beetles. The bees established nests in wood and they were collected , the microbiomes of their guts and the pollen they were carrying was analyzed. They also collected flowers at the site including those that the bees visited and flowers that they didn't visit. They ensured flowers that had not been visited by bees, had bags placed over them before they bloomed and then picked them once they matured and opened. The result showed that the bacteria were present on the flowers whether they were bagged or not. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in bagged flowers suggests the bacteria may be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air or small insects. The bacteria shared by flowers and wild bees is believed to be beneficial because of the presence of Lactobacillus bacteria, which was found on all the flower and bee samples.

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Rapid test to detect salmonella in meat and poultry.

A study published in the journal of food safety,shows a rapid test to detect salmonella in meat and poultry. Salmonella is the leading cause of food borne illnesses so an early detection of the pathogen, by a rapid and sensitive test is important to prevent the illness and economic losses. Scientists led by University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences researchers has found a faster and more precise way to detect salmonella in beef and chicken. In the study, researchers artificially contaminated food with salmonella, and then tested the food samples using Salmonella-specific antibodies combined with a unique signal amplification technique. The test found salmonella present after 15 hours and removed other microorganisms that sometimes clutter laboratory results. This is shorter than the two to three days it takes to detect salmonella in a culture.This test is an effective simple monitoring system for food borne pathogens in food samples, which can improve food safety .

Small implanted device limits metastatic breast cancer.

A new finding reported in Cancer Research shows how a medical device implanted under the skin can improve breast cancer survival by catching cancer cells, slowing the development of metastatic tumors in other organs and allowing time to intervene with surgery or other therapies. This study shows that in the metastatic setting, early detection combined with a therapeutic intervention can improve outcomes. Early detection of a primary tumor is generally associated with improved outcomes.This study, done in mice shows that the implantable scaffold device effectively captures metastatic cancer cells. The scaffold is made of FDA-approved material commonly used in sutures and wound dressings. It's biodegradable and can last up to two years within a patient. The researchers envision it would be implanted under the skin, monitored with non-invasive imaging and removed upon signs of cancer cell colonization, at which point treatment could be administered. The scaffold is designed to mimic the environment in other organs before cancer cells migrate there. The scaffold attracts the body's immune cells, and the immune cells draw in the cancer cells. This then limits the immune cells from heading to the lung, liver or brain, where breast cancer commonly spreads.Typically, immune cells initially colonize a metastatic site and then pave the way for cancer cells to spread to that organ. In the mouse study at day 5 after tumor initiation, the researchers found a detectable percentage of tumor cells within the scaffold but none in the lung, liver or brain, suggesting that the cancer cells hit the scaffold first. At 15 days after tumor initiation, they found 64 percent fewer cancer cells in the liver and 75 percent fewer cancer cells in the brains of mice with scaffolds compared to mice without scaffolds. This suggests that the presence of the scaffold slows the progress of metastatic disease. The researchers removed the tumors at day 10, which is after detection but before substantial spreading, and found the mice that had the scaffold in place survived longer than mice that did not have a scaffold. While surgery was the primary intervention in this study, the researchers suggest that additional medical treatments might also be tested as early interventions. This system is early detection and treatment, not a cure, the researchers emphasize. The scaffold won't prevent metastatic disease or reverse disease progression for patients with established metastatic cancer.

New mosquito-borne disease detected in Haiti.

University of Florida researchers have identified a patient in Haiti with a serious mosquito-borne illness that has never before been reported in the Caribbean nation. Its known as "Mayaro virus," and it is closely related to chikungunya virus and was first isolated in Trinidad in 1954. Most reported cases, however, have been confined to small outbreaks in the Amazon. Whether this case signals the start of a new outbreak in the Caribbean region is currently unknown. The case was identified from a blood sample taken in January 2015 from an 8-year-old boy in rural Haiti. The patient had a fever and abdominal pain but no rash or conjunctivitis.The symptoms of Mayaro fever are similar to those of chikungunya fever: fever, joint pain, muscle pain and rashes. Abdominal pain is also a feature of Mayaro fever, however, and joint pain can last longer.

Detection of mad cow disease using cattle retina.

A study published in the peer-reviewed academic journal PLOS ONE shows that examining the retinas of cattle can give information about mad cow disease 11 months before signs are noticed. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE, known more commonly as mad cow disease, is an untreatable neurodegenerative disorder caused by misfolded brain proteins known as prions . Classic BSE incubates for years before farmers,herdsmen or veterinarians notice symptoms, which is usually discovered when the animal can no longer stand on its own. The cow's retina could give secrets about bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the retina is part of the central nervous system,the part of the brain that windows the outside world. Studies have shown that changes occur in the retina of animals that have prion diseases. The study used noninvasive technologies to access the retinas and determine the health status of the animal. This can easily be adapted for inspection and selection of animals both for import and slaughter to ensure food safety. Examination of retinas of cattle will be a much faster way to check for mad cow disease and prevent economic loses.

The CashMinder; helping you to track your money.

A new farm management tool has been launched to help farmers track and monitor their money and provide data quickly to their accountant. CashMinder, developed by Agrinet, is designed to work primarily around electronic data from online banking systems and also from online dairy co-op systems. The cashminder is a simple and quick farm cash management system that allows you to track your money and provide data quickly to farmers’ accountants, farm advisers and to the Teagasc eProfit Monitor. CashMinder has been developed using its own database with its own access username and password.It requires no names, addresses or contact phone numbers. There is no connection at all with any other Agrinet databases, for example, the Agrinet grass database. The software gives farmers the option to ask their accountant or farm adviser to sign them up on CashMinder and they may be the only people who know your identification on CashMinder. One of the benefits of the software are that it allows farmers to create a simple and quick cash flow budget, project the current account bank balance for the rest of the year and track cash flow via the bank as time passes and compare to the budget. The tool also allows banks realize and take a significant interest in seeing farmers ability to track the cashflow and projected cashflow. The CashMinder will allow the farmer,investors and would-be partners to access the state of business and projections of the venture. Its a simple farm management tool,see it

The use of banned drugs in food animal production and the health implication in man.

Animals raised and processed for food have a great deal of impact on the health and well being of man. The saying "you are what you eat" hold true ,as whatever you throw in or gulp down shows up in terms of fat or a trim frame. Now a days the term is modified to you are "what your animals eat", meaning if you feed crap,you get crap at the end. The business of raising animals for consumption is not a minor issue, aside the monetary issue(profit margin),the health status of the animals and by extension humans that consume these products is very important as the drugs used in the production line must be safe for the animals and humans as well. The superbugs issue has actually been traced to misuse or overuse of antibiotics in food animal production and this has birthed the antibiotic free production movement ,everyone is alert and aware of nutrients,health benefits,side effects and most importantly,people are going organic. This awareness has helped to enforce certain regulation and formulation of new regulations regarding what drugs to use and what not to administer during production. The regulation coupled with surveillance and strict inspection during slaughter to test for residues has helped to prevent greedy producers from passing dangerous products to the public. This is the case of a cattle breeder;Stanley Richardson (67) from Woodford, Newtowngore,convicted and fined €500 and ordered to pay costs of €5,000 after he was found guilty of selling an animal which had been given bute, a banned substance.Richardson was found guilty of selling a bull which had been administered the banned substance phenylbutazone, also known as bute. Phenylbutazone is known to induce blood dyscrasias, including aplastic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, and thrombocytopenia, and can result in death. Hypersensitivity reactions of the serum-sickness type have also been reported. The banned substance has the potential to have a carcinogenic effect on humans, thus why it is prohibited in food producing animals. Bute can be used to treat horses, as it is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, provided horses treated are not intended for human consumption.

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Insect bite hypersensitivity in horses.

Insect bite hypersensitivity is an allergic reaction to the saliva of biting insects such as Culicoides , mosquitoes, black flies, and horn flies. The bites elicit an allergic response from sensitive horses, resulting in hives (urticaria) and/or crusty patches. The effects of these bites in horses are not limited to hypersensitivity,but most of these insects are vectors causing severe diseases that may be fatal in horses. The mosquitoes are the top of the list of insects with roller coaster effect in horses. The Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (EEE, WEE, and VEE) and the West Nile virus are arboviruses, and all are transmitted by blood-feeding insects or ticks--and these pathogens can cause fatal neurologic disease in horses. The bites and sores are usually on a horse’s: ears,back,tail,belly and mane.It is very important to keep biting insects away from horses not only because of hypersensitivity but because of severe fatal diseases that the elicit in horses. The use of insecticides in stables,tags and repellents are just a few methods that keep the insects off. The pet protector when worn on animals produces a scalar wave that repels mosquitoes,ticks,fleas and other biting insects. The protection is a 4-year plan,which saves you money, labor and the possibility of losing horses to "brain fever". Pet Protector’s Scalar waves are harmless to people and animals, and they are only effective against external parasites repelling them from the shielded area. The Pet Protector Disc acts by preventing fleas, ticks and mosquitoes from getting the chance to infest your pet. The pet protector is made from high quality steel alloys,charged with a specific combination of Magnetic and Scalar waves. These waves are triggered by the animal’s movement to produce an invisible energy field around the entire animal’s body. A horse can be fully protected by the pet protector get it Horses with insect bite hypersensitivity(IBH) usually have intense itching,and severe scratching results in pulling out of their manes and tail in the process. These intense scratching damage the coat,this break predisposes to secondary bacterial infection. There is a genetic disposition of certain horses to the insect bite hypersensitivity,although horses of all breeds can be affected. When horses have insect bite hypersensitivity, the treatment usually involve use of topical preparations containing antihistamines and feed containing omega3-fatty acids have been reported to reduce inflammatory reactions associated with IBH. Horses can also be protected in stables or outside using any of the following methods

Management of rostral mandibular fracture with cerclage wire in the horse.

When a horse breaks the lower jaw the surgical intervention usually include repairs with screws and plates but with a downside of postoperative complications, but a new method has been described that uses cerclage wires to hold the jaw with no side effects. The study documented in the veterinary research forum explains the procedure by a team of Iranian doctors which showcases the surgical treatment and unique management of rostral mandibular fracture with cerclage wire in a horse. Hadi Naddaf, DVM, DVSc, of the Department of Clinical Sciences in the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz Faculty of Veterinary Medicine stated that the technique used in the study is really easier than others, as it can be accomplished with less handling of bone and by creating only two holes. The technique he developed was designed for transverse fractures of the rostral portion of the mandible or maxilla/premaxillae area of the mouth in the interdental space (essentially, the front part of the jaw just under the front teeth). Traditionally, surgeons repair such fractures using lag-screw fixation, applying an internal or external acrylic prosthesis, or using dynamic compression plating and wiring. These procedures are not only complex but also frequently associated with post-surgical complications. Horses can experience tooth loss, malocclusion (bad alignment of the teeth for chewing), osteomyelitis (bone infection), sequestration (death of part of the bone), and chronic discharge. The technique used in this study had no such complications; Naddaf and his fellow researchers threaded a cerclage wire through two holes in the jaw bone to close a 3-year-old Arabian’s mandibular fracture. The post operative care was as follows ;1) horse received antibiotic 2) anti-inflammatory therapy but did not need any stall rest or specific exercise program.3) diet was strictly liquid (energy-glucose mix) for the first five days followed by a 20-day diet of semi-solid food, mainly bran mash. 4) Handlers washed out the mouth daily to keep it clean from food residue, and surgeons removed the wires after six weeks. The major advantage of the procedure aside the simplicity is the fact that hospitalization is not required and there is no need for an exercise program

High stocking density predisposes broilers to necrotic enteritis.

Researchers from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, have shown that high stocking density has adverse effects on broiler welfare and intestinal health and predisposes the birds to necrotic enteritis (NE). The study was carried out as follows, the team randomly assigned 240 day-old broilers to one of four groups. Two groups had normal stocking density, defined as 15 birds/square meter (10.7 square feet), and two more groups had high stocking density, defined as 30 birds/square meter. Researchers challenged one of the normal and one of the high stocking-density groups with a 10-fold oral dose of an attenuated anticococcidal vaccine plus multiple oral inoculations with a strain of Clostridium perfringens. The remaining two groups were not challenged and were used as controls. The researchers then collected and scored the birds for gross lesions; they also collected intestinal digesta to test for pH and viscosity, and caeca for microbiological analysis. Investigators found a significant correlation between high stocking density and challenge based on their evaluation (p ≤ 0.05). Compared to unchallenged controls, high stocking density in challenged birds also increased the gross lesion score in the intestines.

Pneumonia and the iron connection.

This is how pneumonia affects the body; A new research has found that iron in the blood is targeted by the bacteria as a way to spread around the body as iron is essential for the bacteria to grow. The study published in the mBio journal research has shown that some strands of the pneumonia bacteria use iron to spread the disease round the body.This discovery could be used to inform how antibiotics can target the bacteria and prevent it spreading. Scientists from the University of Michigan Medical School discovered that the race for iron increases the risk we can face from Klebisella.pneumoniae, a bacteria that commonly causes pneumonia in patients in hospital. It also causes bloodstream, wound and urinary tract infections. When a body is infected with pneumonia, there is a competition for iron that both the bacteria and the host need for essential cellular processes. The study detailed how the k. pneumoniae sends out tiny iron-scavenging molecules, called siderophores, to grab the iron and potentially cause infection. The Siderophores are used as a soldiers to acquire iron for bacterial growth: they are secreted by the bacteria, they grab a molecule of iron from the host, and return to the cell to provide it as a nutrient. The siderophores from k. pneumoniae are hundreds of times more powerful at grabbing iron than the proteins that our own bodies produce,thus allowing the molecules to invade the rest of the body beyond their initial point of entry to bring on inflammation caused by the human immune system. The bacterium has evolved new ways to get iron, and the mechanism it uses also causes cellular stress during infections, as that response triggers an immune response that tells our bodies to fight the infection, but it also activates a mechanism that allows bacteria to escape and travel to the rest of the body. This mechanism that allows the bacteria to travel around the body is called HIF-1alpha, and is normally used in a positive way to help our bodies respond to low oxygen or low iron, but when it is activated by the k. pneumoniae siderophores, it worsens the infection. The researchers discovered the role that siderophores play in the infection by working out how to create bacteria that would not reproduce, while still producing siderophores.

Eagles trained to drop drones .

Dutch police are employing eagles to take down illegal drones following successful trials.The force has become the first in the world to recruit birds to tackle the increasing number of drones invading the Dutch skies. It's a low-tech solution to a hi-tech problem,police spokesman Dennis Janus said, the birds are not in any danger. The animal rights group raise concerns,but have been assured that the birds are not exposed to any danger. A number of tests have been conducted since January and police seem confident about the programme. The eagles will now be deployed whenever drones are believed to be posing a threat to the public or flying close to airports or sensitive areas. The eagles see the drones as prey and intercept them as they are flying, before landing where they feel safe with the drone still in their claws, about 100 officers will be trained to work with the eagles. After successful trials, Dutch police bought four sea eagle chicks. They are now five months old. As the police wait for their birds to mature, they will be using eagles supplied by a specialist company, Guard From Above.more

PepperPay’s robot photographer replaces cashiers.

Machine vision technology will let any smartphone or tablet recognize objects so we don’t have to rely on humans or barcode scanners,PepperPay brings machine vision to the checkout process. This is how PepperPay works ; just hold up the item you want to buy in front of a robot wielding a PepperPay-equipped device that can take a picture of it and instantly recognize what it is. The transaction is then completed at purchase checkout and escape the store without standing in a long line. Checkout automation holds big opportunities for reducing overhead costs of brick-and-mortar businesses and increasing customer satisfaction. More grocery stores are offering self-checkout, but barcode scanning is clumsy for untrained users. Replacing that process with simply holding up an item and taking a photo of it could speed up checkout and vastly reduce the need for specialized hardware.

Diagnose your plant’s health with your smartphone camera and Plantbot.

A team of a bunch of plant nuts decided to build Plantbot,to help people figure out whether their plants are healthy and what they need to do to make them better. This is how the plant bot works: You take or upload a photo of a plant, and using some machine learning tools available online and it’ll tell you whether or not your plant is healthy and what might be wrong with it. The process takes a few seconds, and then if users have additional questions, they can query them a chat interface in the app. There are a couple common problems that the app can diagnose such as what a differently colored leaf might signal ,that there’s not enough nitrogen in the soil, and brown tips on the leaves may mean there are too many nutrients in the soil, This handles the issue of quickly answering questions that most plant owners might have.The team feeds in photos themselves with some common problems, and then matches it against the photos that are coming in, so there will be some hurdles to getting enough data online and encompassing the wide array of problems. The team behind Plantbot — an international group consisting of Capeletto,more