Tuesday, March 26, 2019
VETERINARY MEDICINE: Soaking Dry Dog food. If you've ever soaked your dog's food, you're aware of how much dry dog food expands when immersed in water. It's a little horrifying, actually, to realize how much more space a certain amount of food will require in a dog's stomach and gut once the dog's digestive juices hydrate the individual kibbles. It nearly doubles in volume. The kibbles are like little sponges - some more than others. Soaking dry dog food by adding water will definitely increase the palatability of dry food for some dogs,help digestibility and prevents bloat.It is very important not to let moisten food stand for long hours at room temperature to prevent bacterial growth . While most people soak the dry food with water,others use bone broth and many others use milk,just to ensure gut health of their pets. According to MastiffLover "I've been soaking my dogs kibble for about 45 years now. When I was a little girl my parents best friends lost their dog to bloat and I remember them saying their vet told them that it was probably because they weren't soaking her food and that she would always drink a bunch of water after eating." Jenny does these to her dogs kibble "If you give it enough 'soaking' time it will increase about four-fold :-(I no longer fed my dogs 'bowls' of dry food -- moistened of not. I prefer to feed hard biscuits -- large enough that they cannot be swallowed whole. I cannot understand WHY pet food manufacturers do not market their dry food as biscuit rather than pelletized bits. Adapted from whole dog journal.
Saturday, February 16, 2019
Veterinary Medicine: 9 Tips To Make Your Dog’s Fur Beautiful.Taking care of your dog’s coat is just as important as regular trips to the vet. Read on for our top 9 tips for a shiny, healthy and beautiful dog’s fur. A Good Brushing Goes a Long Way Your dog’s healthy coat starts with regular brushing with a quality brush.Weekly brushing keeps your dog’s hair clean and dust-free while keeping shedding under control. For longer hair, consider more frequent brushing to keep tangles and mats at bay.Look for wood handles and other natural products to avoid exposing your dog to harsh chemicals and synthetic fibers that can cause allergic reactions. If you are, by any chance, looking to get a dog, be sure to learn about the breed you’re interested in seeing how much they shed, how often regular maintenance will be needed in case you’re concerned about how much time you might need to spend grooming your dog. Continue.
Tuesday, December 18, 2018
Veterinary Medicine: Parvo viral infection in dogs.The canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is a highly contagious viral illness in dogs. The virus manifests itself in two different forms. The more common form is the intestinal form, which is characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss and lack of appetite (anorexia). The less common form is the cardiac form, which attacks the heart muscles of fetuses and very young puppies, often leading to death. The majority of cases are seen in puppies that are between six weeks and six months old. The incidence of canine parvovirus infections has been reduced radically by early vaccination in young puppies.The signs & symptoms of parvo in dogs, the major symptoms associated with the intestinal form of a canine parvovirus infection are severe, bloody diarrhea,Lethargy,anorexia,fever,vomiting and severe weight loss. Veterinary Medicine: Parvo viral infection in dogs. The intestinal form of CPV affects the body's ability to absorb nutrients, and an affected animal will quickly become dehydrated and weak from lack of protein and fluid absorption. The wet tissue of the mouth and eyes may become noticeably red, and the heart may beat too rapidly. When your dog’s abdominal area is examined, the dog may respond due to pain or discomfort. Dogs who have contracted CPV may also have a low body temperature (hypothermia), rather than a fever. Related: risk of parvo in dogs.
Veterinary Medicine: Canine parvovirus very rampant and deadly.A University of Sydney study has found that canine parvovirus (CPV), a highly contagious and deadly disease that tragically kills puppies, is more prevalent than previously thought with 20,000 cases found in Australia each year, and nearly half of these cases result in death. This is the case in Nigeria too,where the scourge of the virus is very high. The study published in Transboundary and Emerging Disease, the national survey of 534 veterinary clinics investigated the number of cases of CPV, their geographic distribution, and financial impacts on pet owners. The survey revealed that CPV remains a major cause of disease in puppies and dogs across Australia, particularly in rural and remote areas of the country, despite improvements in vaccination technology over the last 40 years. CPV in dogs causes the destruction of the intestinal lining and villus atrophy, resulting in severe gastroenteritis, haemorrhagic diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. The data shows that cost factors were linked to the pet owners' decisions to seek treatment for their dog -- higher costs were linked to pet owners opting for euthanasia instead of seeking treatment. An inability to afford treatment might be a factor in the high euthanasia rates reported by veterinarians. Related posts. Parvo virus outbreak. How to use metronidazole in dogs.
Sunday, December 9, 2018
AGRIBUSINESS: How to Turn Disengaged Employees into Brand Ambassadors.Disengaged employees can cause major disruption to your business. So how can you turn the situation around and make brand ambassadors out of your disengaged staff? Disengaged employees negatively affect a lot more than you may think. Even actively engaged employees can be directly impacted by decreased morale within a team if other member’s levels of engagement drop – it’s like a black cloud hovering over the team and I’m sure most of us know what it feels like to work alongside someone who is feeling disgruntled or unsatisfied in their job. Disengagement causes a domino effect; Low satisfaction levels amongst employees leads to low customer service levels which in turn means lowered revenue. None of which is benefiting anyone. Unmotivated employees offer poor customer service which goes further than direct sales. Even those disengaged employees working behind the scenes are not representing their employers in the best light to the people they know. I think it’s fair to say we have all come across a Facebook status rant relating to places of work which can impact future potential business and is detrimental to the brand image. So how can employers turn this situation around? By introducing efforts to turn these disengaged employees into not only just engaged, but passionate brand ambassadors.
Wednesday, December 5, 2018
VETERINARY MEDICINE : Glyphosate found in cat and dog food.A new study finds that glyphosate, the active herbicidal ingredient in widely used weed killers like Roundup, was present at low levels in a variety of dog and cat foods the researchers purchased at stores. A new Cornell study published this month in Environmental Pollution finds that glyphosate, the active herbicidal ingredient in widely used weed killers like Roundup, was present at low levels in a variety of dog and cat foods.VETERINARY MEDICINE : Glyphosate found in cat and dog food. The study grew out of a larger interdisciplinary research project led by Brian Richards, senior research associate in biological and environmental engineering, and supported by the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future's Academic Venture Fund, which sought to reassess glyphosate mobility and impacts in several contexts: movement from crop fields in surface water, impacts on soils and on animals consuming it in their feed.VETERINARY MEDICINE : Glyphosate found in cat and dog food.
Wednesday, November 21, 2018
Agro-Veterinary : 5 Simple Ways To Drink Turmeric & Get Its Benefits. 5 Simple Ways To Drink Turmeric & Get Its Benefits. Turmeric can be used to make tea, turmeric milk, smoothies, soups, and drinks. Adding turmeric in these foods will help you incorporate it into your diet on a daily basis. These drinking options are not only very healthy but also quite delicious for man and pets. Turmeric and its constituent curcumin have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. Agro-Veterinary : 5 Simple Ways To Drink Turmeric & Get Its Benefits. Taking it on a regular basis may help in the prevention and treatment of several disorders, infections and assist in eradicating toxins from the body.
Sunday, November 18, 2018
VETERINARY MEDICINE : 7 REASONS WHY DOG BREEDING IS GOOD..Breeding dogs inherited a very bad reputation — mostly because of irresponsible breeders! Yet, a lot of dog breeders are full of love and happy to give all the time, money and care that are required to breed dogs ethically. Here are the top reasons why dog breeding is good. There is no miracle in dog breeding. On one hand, if it is performed by somebody smart and willing to learn, then the activity will be done properly. Such breeders produce champions, or at least, healthy dogs with great temperaments. On the other hand, if the breeder is profit-obsessed and happy to cut corners on his dogs’ health, the resulting litters of puppies will encounter issues over time. Specializing Breeds One of the many reasons why breeding dogs can be beneficial is due to specialized breeding. In a previous article, we mentioned that selective breeding was the procedure of breeding purposefully selected dogs with the intention to produce, preserve, or remove specific physical characteristics, mental traits, health conditions, skills, and aptitudes to perform specific tasks. This practice can be done naturally and selectively. If you use specialized breeding, you produce dogs that show the desired traits and remove unwanted genetic traits. Originally, dogs were adopted and domesticated in order to be useful, so specialized breeding is meant to also reinforce specific skills from a given dog. VETERINARY MEDICINE : 7 REASONS WHY DOG BREEDING IS GOOD. The breeding of dogs to enforce a skill that is prevalent in a breed has been used for centuries and is a great benefit of breeding as it can help an entire society, for example, police dogs, hunting dogs and Seeing Eye dogs. All specialized breeds that help the world around them, all thanks to a skill and trait that was seen in their breed, and reinforced through selective breeding. The German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, and Border Collie have all benefited from this specialized breeding over hundreds of years so that they are now excellent at their jobs. And if you do choose to breed a specialized dog, you also reinforce these positive traits and improve skills in the breed if the breeding program is carried out correctly and safely.
Saturday, November 17, 2018
Veterinary Medicine : signs, causes and treatment of swollen paws in dogs. Swollen paws are a common problem for dogs. Although the condition is not usually dangerous, depending on the cause of the problem, it can be very uncomfortable and even highly painful as paws are very sensitive. The most obvious sign is limping, favoring a leg, or hobbling and special attention to the top and underside of the paws for swelling and pain is fundamental to an assessment of any kind of lameness. The primary cause of swollen paws are often caused by a foreign object getting trapped between the pads/toes of the dog’s foot. Insect or spider bites, puncture wounds, broken toes, fractured claws, and constant licking/chewing (as with allergies or other source of chronic irritation) are other common causes. Pad burns from running on hot asphalt are also common during the summertime. Immediate Care; 1)Check the paw for objects caught between the pads/toes. 2)Check for insect stings or puncture wounds (though often hard to pinpoint). 3)If possible, remove trapped object with tweezers and wash the paw with warm, soapy water. 4)If you can’t see anything trapped in the paw, check the dog’s leg to ensure no constricting material is present (which can easily cause swelling). 5)Soaking the paw in an Epsom salt solution is often of benefit, regardless of the cause. Ten minutes in comfortably hot water (in a tub or basin) with Epsom salts dissolved within is typically an excellent short-term solution for swelling. If you can see an obvious lesion, the swelling does not quickly disappear, or the dog continues to favor the paw, call your vet for further advice. Veterinary attention in these cases is almost always in order. Dogs swollen paws:signs, causes and treatment.
Veterinary Medicine : Causes And Treatment Of Constipation In Dogs. Dog constipation is defined as the inability to defecate normally. Much like humans, older dogs are more prone to this condition, though it can happen to any breed of dog at any age. Constipation in dogs should not be ignored, as extended periods of distress can cause serious health concerns. A constipated dog, especially if it is well-trained and evacuates at regular intervals daily, is described as being constipated if it is experiencing difficult bowel movements and physical distress. (In addition, severe diarrhea and colitis may lead to straining.) Grass particles, matted feces, string, or other objects in or around the anus is also indicative of constipation. The size of the feces will be abnormally small and once the condition has progressed, lethargy, vomiting, and loss of appetite may develop. Dog Constipation Causes and Treatment. The primary cause which is the most common is swallowing objects that are not easily digested, if at all, such as a piece of dry bone. However, other causes are as follows: 1) Slower intestinal processes. 2)Enlarged prostates. 3)Concurrent kidney disease. 4)Hernias 5) swallowing grass or hair. Veterinary Medicine : Causes and Treatment Of Constipation In Dogs. The immediate intervention is as follows: If you can see a thread or string in the anus, do not pull it. This can cause internal damage. Other important things to note: 1)Always wear rubber gloves when dealing with feces and related anal problems. 2)If you can see grass in the anus, gently ease it out. 3)If feces are matted around the anus, trim carefully with scissors. 4)Wash the anal region with warm, soapy water and apply a soothing, water-soluble jelly to the inflamed area. 5) Take the dog’s temperature. If it is abnormally high or there is blood on the thermometer or resistance when inserting the thermometer, see your veterinarian immediately (within 24 hours). Veterinary Medicine : Causes And Treatment Of Constipation In Dogs.
Why Do Dogs Eat Grass?.Dogs love to munch away on grass, and some even make it part of their daily routine. Fortunately, most experts believe it isn't something you should worry about. So why exactly do they gobble up that green stuff in your yard? Dogs, unlike their catty counterparts, are not carnivores. But they're not like your garden-variety omnivores, either. For tens of thousands of years, these opportunistic scavengers have devoured anything and everything, as long as it fulfilled their basic dietary requirements. The modern dog, partly because of evolution and domestication, is no longer like its ancestors, which frequently ate their prey entirely, including the stomach contents of plant-eating animals. Instead, dogs today seek out plants as an alternative food source. Most commonly the plant is grass -- since that is what is closest at hand -- but wild canines are known to eat fruits, berries, and other vegetable matter, too. Clearly, dogs can find their nutrients in a wide range of plant foods, but that doesn't explain why Fido usually throws up after eating grass. A dog will seek out a natural remedy for a gassy or upset stomach, and grass, it seems, may do the trick. When ingested, the grass blade tickles the throat and stomach lining; this sensation, in turn, may cause the dog to vomit, especially if the grass is gulped down rather than chewed. Although dogs don't typically graze on large amounts of grass like a cow, they may nibble on grass, chew on it for a while, and not throw up (an unwell dog will tend to gulp the grass down in big bites and then throw up). This may be because they find the texture of the grass palatable, or just because they need to add a little roughage to their diet. Why Do Dogs Eat Grass?.
VETERINARY MEDICINE: 10 Signs Of Stress in Cats. Stress can make anyone a little crazy, even our cats. The tricky part is while the anxiety and fear associated with stress affects our cats in much the same way it does us, most cats tend to hide and mask their inner turmoil. Even worse, stress can be an indication that your cat has a health issue. According to Patricia B. McConnell, Ph.D., a certified applied animal behaviorist, chronic stress can even "suppress the immune response, causing a broad range of illnesses." Here are some signs of stress you'll want to watch out for in your cat, especially if they occur suddenly. VETERINARY MEDICINE: 10 Signs Of Stress in Cats. Aggression Towards People. A stressed or sick cat may also display aggression towards people, even you. Again, it's best to consult your veterinarian or a veterinary behaviorist immediately. Increased Sleeping Just because cats can sleep up to 20 hours a day doesn't necessarily mean your cat will. By now you will have become accustomed to his or her sleeping schedule. Speak with your veterinarian if you're cat is sleeping more than usual or seems overly lethargic. Excessive Grooming Cats are known for their fastidious grooming, but licking themselves raw or bald is a clear sign of distress. Skip the groomer and go straight for the vet's office.10 Signs Your Cat Might Be Stressed.
AGRO-VETERINARY :7 Safe and Healthy Human Foods for Dogs That You Can Serve for the Holidays. AGRO-VETERINARY :7 Safe and Healthy Human Foods for Dogs That You Can Serve for the Holidays. Do you want to include your favorite furry friend in your holiday celebrations? There are plenty of traditional Thanksgiving and Christmas foods that are perfect for sharing. So, if you want to create a festive meal for your special four-legged companion, here are some safe human foods for dogs you can fill your pup’s holiday dog bowl with. AGRO-VETERINARY :7 Safe and Healthy Human Foods for Dogs That You Can Serve for the Holidays. Can Dogs Eat Green Beans? Green beans served without all the trappings (like salt, seasonings and butter) are great for dogs. They are a low-calorie snack that is high in iron and several other vitamins and minerals that dogs need. Their high-fiber content also helps fill your pup’s belly and keep them full, which may help aid in weight control. As a treat, you can simply serve your pup unsalted green beans—canned, frozen or fresh. If you want to incorporate green beans into your dog's regular diet, look for a nutritionally complete and balanced dog food like Purina Beyond Turkey and Green Bean Recipe canned dog food. Pups love sweet potatoes! They’re a good source of B vitamins, vitamin A and fiber. In recent years, this veggie has gained popularity with canines across the country and is frequently included in limited ingredient diets like American Journey limited ingredient grain-free turkey and sweet potato recipe dry dog food. You can also cut up raw sweet potatoes, cook them and serve them in cubes; steam and mash them; or bake or boil them—the possibilities are endless with this versatile veggie. You can even give your dog dried sweet potato treats like Fruitables sweet potato and pecan flavor crunchy dog treats.more
VETERINARY MEDICINE: Ten Signs of Heart Disease in Cats. Heart disease in cats presents itself in much the same way as in dogs, with a few exceptions. The biggest difference is that cats tend to mask their signs better than dogs, and therefore go longer without detection. Since early detection is key, be on the look-out for the following signs... VETERINARY MEDICINE: Ten Signs of Heart Disease in Cats. #1 Restlessness Restlessness is harder to recognize in cats than in dogs, as it seems many healthy cats are restless, especially at night. If your cat suddenly becomes restless at night where it wasn’t before, be on the look-out for other signs of heart disease. #2 Weakness Sure, cats nap a lot no matter the circumstance. However, if your cat appears less playful or tires more easily due to weakness rather than laziness, you may have a problem. #3 Fainting/Collapsing If you find your cat has fainted or collapsed, seek veterinary help. If your cat is experience any of these other signs, it may all be due to heart disease. 4 Swollen Abdomen More likely than weight gain is a bloated or distended abdomen. More
Sunday, July 8, 2018
VETERINARY MEDICINE: Benefits Of Coconut Oil For Dogs And Cats. How To Use Coconut Oil For Dogs And Cats. The benefits of coconut oil are enormous and have found usefulness in both animals and man. Coconut oil also contains lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid that is converted in the body to monolaurin, a monoglyceride compound with numerous beneficial properties, such as anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal. VETERINARY MEDICINE: Benefits Of Coconut Oil For Dogs And Cats. Lauric acid destroys lipid-coated bacteria, fungus and viruses such as herpes, the measles, influenza, hepatitis C and HIV, ringworm and athlete’s foot. Research shows that medium chain triglycerides (MCT) such as those found in coconut oil provide a wide range of health advantages: 1) Help with weight loss as MCTs increase metabolism this sends signals of satiety and cannot be stored as fat. 2) Improve digestion and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.(A,D,E,K) 3) Benefit the skin and coat 4) Provide a rapid form of non-carbohydrate energy. VETERINARY MEDICINE: Benefits Of Coconut Oil For Dogs And Cats. Coconut oil is termed a super-food for the brain.typically called brain food. Coconut oil is proven to improve brain function in older dogs which have important implications for people and animals. In a recent study, 24 senior Beagles fed a diet supplemented with 5.5% coconut oil showed significant improvement in cognitive ability within just one month. The scientists concluded that the MCTs (as contained in coconut oil) provided an alternative source of brain energy for the senior dogs. The brain requires a lot of energy, most of which is satisfied when our bodies metabolize glucose from the foods we eat. This process reduces with age as we metabolize glucose less efficiently, leaving a “gap” in the brain’s energy requirement. When this occurs, alternative sources of fuel become important to fill this gap and provide much-needed energy to the brain. This is where coconut oil supplement comes in handy. VETERINARY MEDICINE: Benefits Of Coconut Oil For Dogs And Cats. Coconut oil used for treatment of skin allergies and to groom coat giving a lustrous shine.
Tuesday, November 21, 2017
Bovine birthing simulator used to educate veterinary students on display at Agribition.Meet Agnes — she's a full-size cow, with a working udder, a uterus and a full-size calf but she's not quite a real cow. Instead, the bovine specimen is used to educate veterinary students and cattle producers about the cattle birthing process.#bovine "We can actually use her, mainly to educate ... in the birthing process, and how to deal with any sort of malpresentations at the birthing time," said Chris Clark, associate dean of the college of veterinary medicine at the University of Saskatchewan. #bovine
Saturday, November 18, 2017
Soybean meal positively affects pigs with PRRSV. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most widespread disease in the swine industry. In sows, PRRSV causes reproductive problems during gestation, including abnormal litters or abortions. Growing pigs with the disease will have respiratory problems and poor growth. Increased soybean meal concentrations in the diet may help alleviate the effects of PRRSV in infected weanling pigs. PRRSV infected pigs fed high soybean meal concentrations had a more efficient virus elimination compared to PRRSV infected pigs fed the low soybean meal diet. Soybean meal is the primary protein source fed to swine. It also contains isoflavones, compounds that have anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. Soybean meal positively affects pigs with PRRSV.
Friday, November 3, 2017
VETERINARY MEDICINE: 4 Key Steps To Detect Rabies In Dogs. Step 1. Recognize the first signs, the first stages of the illness usually last a week. During this period the sick dog will present some general symptoms. These signs are: muscle pain, irritability, weakness, agitation, discomfort, photophobia (intolerance to bright lights), loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, chills, inability to swallow normally and cough. Step 2. Look for symptoms of the paralytic form of the disease, this is the most common form of rabies in dogs, and lasts about 3 to 7 days after the first general symptoms. It is called this way because it causes paralysis of some areas of the body of the infected canine, which can start on the hind legs until reaching the facial muscles. Step 3. Look for symptoms of the aggressive form of the disease, this form of rabies also lasts about a week, and happens when the dog has symptoms of aggression and irritation. This type of rabies in dogs often causes a change in behavior. VETERINARY MEDICINE: 4 Key Steps To Detect Rabies In Dogs. It will make them act abnormally, and the foam in the mouth so characteristic of this condition makes them look even more dangerous. Although many think that this is the only form of the disease, it is not, and is much less common. The signs that will help you detect this furious form are excessive salivation with the appearance of foam, hydrophobia or panic to the water, aggression for no apparent reason, uncontrollable desire to bite things and people, restlessness, loss of appetite, irritability, playful attitude that changes Drastically to an aggressive one with just a caress or some other sign of affection. Step 4. Look for any open wounds or any bite marks on your pet's body: usually this disease is transmitted through saliva, which can reach the body of the can through a direct bite or other underlying injury. Contagion is usually carried out when an uninfected dog is bitten or scratched by one that is in the aggressive form of the disease. In very rare cases the virus travels through the air or stays in contaminated objects until it reaches the mucous membranes of its victim. These symptoms will progressively worsen, which greatly increases the risk of death and contagion to other animals and humans. Also, keep in mind that children are primarily affected by the bite of a rabid dog, because they are the least able to defend themselves both physically and biologically.
Monday, August 14, 2017
AGRIBUSINESS: How to use data to ensure food security. The use of data in agriculture cannot be overemphasized as its been proven that data could help promote food security. New data-driven solutions in agriculture and nutrition are increasingly being seen as a way to tackle the estimated population explosion. It is estimated that the population of the world is expected to double and the increase will definitely result in more food production. Data AGRIBUSINESS: How to use data to ensure food security. The Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition (GODAN) initiative seeks to support global efforts to make agricultural and nutritional relevant data available, accessible, and usable worldwide. This initiative is a welcome development on the global scale but this model can be used at a local level to class farmers,collate data and map out strategies to boost food security. Agriculture This initiative of using a data revolution to drive innovation in agriculture and ultimately achieve food security will mean improved livelihoods for farmers, especially those in the developing world, and the ability for more people to feed themselves. This is where telecommunication comes into play, the higher the number of farmers that are connected on a network/platform ,the more data is generated and information disseminated easily. The issue of data is key to any economy, if people,farms, markets,hospitals,stores can not be identified in terms of location,size and capacity then no meaningful planning can be set in motion and definitely no budgetary allocation to cater for that sector. Agriculture. AGRIBUSINESS: How to use data to ensure food security. Phones with easy connectivity are a vital tool for growth in agriculture. The possibilities are endless and its sad that most farmers in the developing countries are still not connected,the issue of disease surveillance,disease control ,animal health services and pricing of products can easily be rectified by connection of farmers on the network. see
Wednesday, May 3, 2017
Food losses and waste converted to animal feed to ensure food security and reduce cost of production. Food waste that are longer suitable for human consumption,off the shelf food can be converted to animal feed however, feed safety should be maintained at all costs. Globally, food waste is rising to 50 percent as developing nations struggle with spoilage while developed nations simply toss edible food away. The crux of the matter actually is that by 2050 there will be about 9 billion people to feed,thus pushing for more food production. These waste can be converted to animal feed with the aim to reduce cost of production and boost food security. Foodstuffs become unsuitable for human consumption for different reasons such as production errors leading to broken or intermediate foodstuffs or surpluses caused by logistical challenges of daily delivery, surpluses caused by discontinuation of a food product line, expired products or damaged products in transit. Foodstuffs like biscuits, chocolates, pastry, cakes and bread are valuable ingredients for animal diets ,these are sourced from manufacturers and processed as animal feed. The important point to note is that waste from animal products and catering centers are not included in this type of production to ensure food safety. The main ingredients are carbohydrates,sugars with certain vitamins,thus forming a major portion of the feed which translates to low cost of production. The processed feed are easily digestible, making the needed nutrients available easily to the animals which results in weight gain. There is efficient feed conversion ratio making animals reach market size fast. The type of waste will depend on the animal you intend to feed ,but basically pigs,cattle,goats benefit. The high cost of feed has also pushed farmers to the extreme,thus implementing new feeding methods. A farmer recently shifted to candy,chocolate and cookies for his dairy cattle and has recorded increase in weight, milk production and healthy animals. read