Tuesday, December 18, 2018
AGRIBUSINESS:Lassa fever controls need to consider human-human transmission and role of super spreaders.
AGRIBUSINESS:Lassa fever controls need to consider human-human transmission and role of super spreaders.One in five cases of Lassa fever -- a disease that kills around 5,000 people a year in West Africa -- could be due to human-to-human transmission, with a large proportion of these cases caused by 'super-spreaders,' according to new research published in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus. First identified in the village of Lassa, Nigeria, in 1969, the disease is thought to be transmitted to humans from contact with food or household items contaminated with rat urine or faeces. There have also been recorded cases of human-to-human transmission within hospital settings, but until now the risk -- or mode -- of transmission has not been clear. Understanding the different modes of transmission and how they are affected by factors such as people's interaction with their environment is crucial for understanding the link between Lassa and changes in the ecosystem, and has important implications for public health strategies. The researchers estimated that around one in five cases (20%) of infection is caused by human-to-human transmission. However, the study also highlighted the disproportionate number of infections that could be traced back to a small number of people, whom the researchers describe as 'super-spreaders' -- rather than passing their infection on to just one other person (if at all), these individuals infected multiple others. It is not clear what makes them a super-spreader -- their physiology, the environment in which they live, their social interactions or probably a combination of these factors. Dr Donald Grant, chief physician at the Lassa ward in Kenema Governmental Hospital and co-author of the research, said: "Simple messages to the local people could change their perceptions of risk and hopefully make the difference. For example, making people aware that the virus can remain in urine for several weeks during the recovery period, could promote improved hygienic practices. Related posts. 1) Rats and Lassa fever. 2) Rats the missing link in disease transmission.
Veterinary Medicine: Parvo viral infection in dogs.The canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is a highly contagious viral illness in dogs. The virus manifests itself in two different forms. The more common form is the intestinal form, which is characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss and lack of appetite (anorexia). The less common form is the cardiac form, which attacks the heart muscles of fetuses and very young puppies, often leading to death. The majority of cases are seen in puppies that are between six weeks and six months old. The incidence of canine parvovirus infections has been reduced radically by early vaccination in young puppies.The signs & symptoms of parvo in dogs, the major symptoms associated with the intestinal form of a canine parvovirus infection are severe, bloody diarrhea,Lethargy,anorexia,fever,vomiting and severe weight loss. Veterinary Medicine: Parvo viral infection in dogs. The intestinal form of CPV affects the body's ability to absorb nutrients, and an affected animal will quickly become dehydrated and weak from lack of protein and fluid absorption. The wet tissue of the mouth and eyes may become noticeably red, and the heart may beat too rapidly. When your dog’s abdominal area is examined, the dog may respond due to pain or discomfort. Dogs who have contracted CPV may also have a low body temperature (hypothermia), rather than a fever. Related: risk of parvo in dogs.
Veterinary Medicine: Canine parvovirus very rampant and deadly.A University of Sydney study has found that canine parvovirus (CPV), a highly contagious and deadly disease that tragically kills puppies, is more prevalent than previously thought with 20,000 cases found in Australia each year, and nearly half of these cases result in death. This is the case in Nigeria too,where the scourge of the virus is very high. The study published in Transboundary and Emerging Disease, the national survey of 534 veterinary clinics investigated the number of cases of CPV, their geographic distribution, and financial impacts on pet owners. The survey revealed that CPV remains a major cause of disease in puppies and dogs across Australia, particularly in rural and remote areas of the country, despite improvements in vaccination technology over the last 40 years. CPV in dogs causes the destruction of the intestinal lining and villus atrophy, resulting in severe gastroenteritis, haemorrhagic diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. The data shows that cost factors were linked to the pet owners' decisions to seek treatment for their dog -- higher costs were linked to pet owners opting for euthanasia instead of seeking treatment. An inability to afford treatment might be a factor in the high euthanasia rates reported by veterinarians. Related posts. Parvo virus outbreak. How to use metronidazole in dogs.