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Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Avian influenza viruses can persist in footbaths and manure.

Avian influenza viruses can persist in footbaths and manure.Growers shouldn’t assume the disinfectants they use in footbaths are effective against avian influenza (AI), indicates a study from the University of California–Davis. Researchers conducted a survey about biosecurity practices in California and then used the information to design experiments to test the effectiveness of footbath disinfectants against AI. They also evaluated the longevity of AI viruses under different conditions. “Surprisingly,” they say, quaternary ammonia and quaternary ammonia plus glutaraldehyde-based footbaths did not eliminate highly pathogenic H5N8 or low-pathogenic H6N2 particles on boots. However, a chlorine-based granulated disinfectant was able to destroy the virus, say Rüdiger Hauck* and colleagues. To evaluate the longevity of AI viruses in litter and feces, they seeded different bedding samples from commercial layer, broiler and turkey production units with the same two AI viruses. Live H5N8 particles in layer feces remained for at least 96 hours, compared to less than 60 hours in broiler and turkey bedding. However, H6N2 low-pathogenic viruses persisted less than 24 hours in all the different substrates. This knowledge may help producers determine effective litter treatments to destroy AI viruses in the bedding material.

Study shows link between E. maxima, Clostridium.

Study shows link between E. maxima, Clostridium. New research by Callie McQuain, DVM, veterinarian and grad student at the University of Georgia, substantiates anecdotal field experience indicating that Eimeria maxima is the type of coccidia that most interacts with Clostridium perfringens and leads to necrotic enteritis (NE). The reason why C. perfringens grows so readily in these flocks is because of the type of damage E. maxima causes to intestinal mucosa. Common industry knowledge has been that E. maxima is the No. 1 coccidial species that leads to NE. Clostridium is part of the gut flora. Together with the coccidial damage, it creates a perfect storm that allows it to grow exponentially and results in NE. As poultry producers either reduce or eliminate antibiotics, it’s hard to stop NE from becoming severe. The emphasis now is on preventing the coccidia from damaging the gut. McQuain recommends adding citric acid or some kind of acidity to the water system, which decreases the pH so Clostridium will not grow as fast. It is also important to quickly collect birds that have succumbed to NE to minimize the presence of Clostridium in the poultry house.

Twitter can reveal our shared mood.

Twitter can reveal our shared mood.In the largest study of its kind, researchers have analyzed mood indicators in text from 800 million anonymous messages posted on Twitter. These tweets were found to reflect strong patterns of positive and negative moods over the 24-hour day. Circadian rhythms, widely referred to as the 'body clock', allows people's bodies to predict their needs over the dark and light periods of the day. Most of this circadian activity is regulated by a small region in the hypothalamus of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which is particularly sensitive to light changes at dawn and dusk, and sends signals through nerves and hormones to every tissue in the body. The research team looked at the use of words relating to positive and negative emotions, sadness, anger, and fatigue in Twitter over the course of four years. The public expressions of affect and fatigue were linked to the time they appeared on the social platform to reveal changes within the 24-hours.

Twitter and people with ADHD.

Twitter and people with ADHD. People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder tend to tweet using words like 'hate' or 'disappointed,' messages related to lack of focus, self-regulation, intention and failure and expressions of mental, physical and emotional exhaustion, according to recent research. Better understanding this condition can help clinicians more effectively treat patients. What can Twitter reveal about people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? Quite a bit about what life is like for someone with the condition, according to findings published by University of Pennsylvania researchers Sharath Chandra Guntuku and Lyle Ungar in the Journal of Attention Disorders. Twitter data might also provide clues to help facilitate more effective treatments. "On social media, where you can post your mental state freely, you get a lot of insight into what these people are going through, which might be rare in a clinical setting," said Guntuku, a postdoctoral researcher working with the World Well-Being Project in the School of Arts and Sciences and the Penn Medicine Center for Digital Health. "In brief 30- or 60-minute sessions with patients, clinicians might not get all manifestations of the condition, but on social media you have the full spectrum." Twitter and people with ADHD.

Machine learning detects marketing and sale of opioids on Twitter.

Machine learning detects marketing and sale of opioids on Twitter.Using advanced machine learning, a cross disciplinary team of University of California San Diego researchers developed technology that mined Twitter to identify entities illegally selling prescription opioids online. Between June and November 2015, some 619,937 tweets containing the keywords codeine, Percocet, fentanyl, Vicodin, Oxycontin, oxycodone and hydrocodone were collected. The findings, published online in the American Journal of Public Health in October, detected 1,778 posts that were marketing the sale of controlled substances, 90 percent included hyperlinks to online sites for purchase.

How diabetes in pregnancy affects baby's heart.

How diabetes in pregnancy affects baby's heart.Researchers have discovered how high glucose levels -- whether caused by diabetes or other factors -- keep heart cells from maturing normally. Their findings help explain why babies born to women with diabetes are more likely to develop congenital heart disease. Researchers at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have discovered how high glucose levels -- whether caused by diabetes or other factors -- keep heart cells from maturing normally. When developing heart cells are exposed to high levels of glucose, the researchers found, the cells generate more building blocks of DNA than usual, which leads the cells to continue reproducing rather than mature.

Monday, December 11, 2017

Living happily in a material world: Material purchases can bring happiness.

Living happily in a material world: Material purchases can bring happiness.A recent study shows material purchases provide more frequent happiness.Researchers have shown that material purchases, from sweaters to skateboards, provide more frequent happiness over time, whereas experiential purchases, like a trip to the zoo, provide more intense happiness on individual occasions. By having people record their thoughts in the weeks following their purchases, as well as one month after their purchases, the researchers showed that material and experiential purchases bring happiness in two distinct flavors. Material purchases bring repeated doses of happiness over time in the weeks after they are bought, whereas experiential purchases offer a more intense but fleeting dose of happiness. Additionally, when people looked back on their purchases 6 weeks after Christmas, they felt more satisfaction about experiential purchases.