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Saturday, February 28, 2015


Bio-security refers to sum total of protocols/practices embarked on in the farm that is aimed at keeping pest, pathogen-causing organisms away.The main purpose of bio security is to keep disease causing organisms away to ensure production of wholesome snails. The first step in the bio security protocol will be to start with clean stock, procure new stock from reputable farmers. Buy snails that are clean,without cracks,nodules and pungent smell. The snails must be active and the foot must fill the shell. The new stock must be cleaned with water and cloth before introduction to house,snails of various ages from various stock should not be mixed and Snails from old batch must not be mixed with new stock. The housing depending on the type require cleaning and wiping/raking and turning of the soil. The fittings of the house must be clean,doors,panels must be solid to prevent ant infestation.The housing must be fitted with wire netting and nets to prevent entry of pests,this must also be cleaned, and checked for any damage. The sand in the snailery must be clean and insect free, the sand must be moistened with water to prevent drying out of the snails.The sand must be raked and turned to remove slime, food remnants and feces.The surrounding of the house must be kept clean,regular washing of the drains and disinfecting of drains are important,the drains can also be lined with oil to prevent solider ants from entering the house. Rat baits are animal traps should be scattered around the compound to prevent access to rodents and other wild animals. The feed and water must be stored properly to prevent contamination with feces or dirt..The water tanks and pipes must be cleaned and the water source sanitized .Clean water must be available to the snails at all times. Feed must be stored in air tight areas, and also prevent water from soaking the feed to prevent molds growing on the feed . Feeding snails: if you want to give fresh vegetables,they must be clean and well chopped to allow the snails consume them easily and the remnant feed must be removed from the snailery. The snails must be examined at regular intervals, and any snail showing signs of illness must be removed from the house. Dead/sick snails must be removed from the house immediately. Visitors to the snailery must be restricted, the visitors can view the snails from side bars without entering, in case of walk-in type full protective clothing must be put on with clean boots. Handling of snails by everyone must be discouraged, as rough handling may predispose to shell damage and possible death due to contamination. The snailery must never have feed/ food with salt ,also use of soap inside the snailery is prohibited.

Friday, February 27, 2015


AGRIBUSINESS: HOW TO REAR SNAILS. Snail farming also referred to as heliculture is a lucrative business with high export potential.Snails are small,hardy and easy to manage.They can be raised on small or large scale using various means of housing.The snail business is easy to set up, with simple management. AGRIBUSINESS: HOW TO REAR SNAILS. Snail farming is not capital intensive, does not require specialized equipment ,the feed are readily available and cheap. AGRIBUSINESS: HOW TO REAR SNAILS. Snails dont constitute a nuisance to the environment because there is on noise from the pens, and effluents are odorless. The snail is divided into 3 parts; the shell, muscular foot and the visceral mass. The shell is the most visible part which makes up 30-40% of the whole body.The shell is a means of identifying various species, and it has ornamental values.The shell increases with body size,thus its also a means of determining the age of the snails. The muscular part also referred to as foot is the edible part, and makes up 45% of the body weight.Its also the means by which the snails move. The visceral mass houses the internal organs and the reproductive organs. The snails are hermaphrodites, but they still require another snail to lay eggs. AGRIBUSINESS: HOW TO REAR SNAILS. Snails can be housed in various enclosures depending on size of stock; old tyres with wire netting,drums,wooden cages, cemented high/low fenced pens or natural gardens .The housing must be intact with no openings for rodents,ants and mosquitoes.The housing must provide shade,to prevent heating up the snails resulting in death. Snails feed on greens,tubers and fruits. Snails can feed on leaves of pawpaw,cassava,fruits of mango,banana,orange.They can also be fed well ground broiler ration,chick mash or layer ration.The feed must be balanced with adequate components of carbohydrate,fish meal and calcium supplements. Water is very important in snail diet and it must be readily available. The housing of the snail must be covered with loamy soil which must be kept moist to allow the snails to burrow and lay eggs.The snails/ hatchlings that are to be the foundation stock must be carefully chosen, they should be of good weight (300-350g),with no cracks on shell and no nodules.The snails must be well stocked to prevent cannibalism,death and poor growth. A stocking density of the snails should be 40-50 hatchlings/m2, 30- 40 growers/m2 and 12-15 adults/m2. The sexual maturity of the snail is 5-6 months, upon maturity they lay eggs in presence of other snails and the eggs are buried deep in the sand to protect them. The snails lays about 80-100 eggs in clutches/batches. In a year they can lay up to 300 eggs ,making the business a very profitable one. The incubation period is between 18-30 days and the hatchlings come out of soil a day after hatching.If the soil is hard,the hatchlings will not be able to come out,hence wetting of the soil is important. The snails bring more value during festive periods hence the marketing can be set to make better profit.The snails can also be processed and exported as snail is a delicacy in African restaurants abroad.


HEALTH BENEFITS OF SNAILS. 1) It has low fat and cholesterol content. 2)It is rich in iron,thus recommended for anaemic patients. 3)Its a good source of protein. 4)The meat is juicy and tender suitable for young and old. AGRIBUSINESS: HEALTH BENEFITS OF SNAILS.

Thursday, February 26, 2015


Renewable energy is produced by using chicken droppings to make bio-gas. Chicken manure produces gas that is sufficient to power homes,schools, industry and also provide heat that can be used in poultry houses. The waste produced from 350 poultry birds amounts to 34kg of litter +68 litres of water is needed to power a 2.4m3 biogas plant daily,which will provide up to 6 hours of continuous gas that can be used for lighting and cooking. The chicken dropping is processed in the biogas plant to produce methane-rich gas which is captured and stored in a generator to produce renewable electricity and heat.The heat generated is used to dry grains and also heat for animal housing. The smell associated with poultry waste is eliminated as the gases are extracted and burned. Every kg of organic matter will yield 0.5m3 of bio-gas hence 1000 kg of chicken litter will yield 200 m3 bio-gas. It takes 1m3 of bio-gas to produce 2.1kw of electricity. The pooling of waste from various farms can be transferred to designated bio-gas plants which will generate power to these areas making each zone a power generating unit,making electricity constant and available to all.


The use of waste to generate electricity in the world today has various advantages to the individuals,nation and the environment. The waste generated in the poultry industry, the livestock farms,agricultural waste,food waste and human waste can be channeled into a bio-gas plant to produce methane,heat and electricity. The power generation in most countries need to be upgraded to serve the populace better,drive industrial growth and maintain a safe environment.The millions of tons of chicken droppings/litter can be channeled and put in a bio-gas plant to generate electricity. Waste of poultry has before now been a menace to the society because of improper management and disposal,but with the introduction of a pre-treatment technology that treats the waste before its passed to the anaerobic digester,for breakdown to produce the desired products. The use of chicken waste to generate power will reduce cost of production in the manufacturing industry,which will translate to lowered overhead cost,lower prices of products and more profit for manufacturers. The generation of electricity from waste is a viable project taking to consideration the amount of poultry birds that are in the country; in a well managed system various sectors/areas can actually provide power to their community. The generation of electricity from chicken droppings is on the move..................join the change movement! no more blackouts....Electricity for all. Join my partners and I as we light up your communities, state and turbo charge your businesses.


The poultry industry is a viable sector ensuring food security and contributing to the GDP of the economy. The revenue generated from this industry has been harnessed to drive growth and development but better management practices can actually increase the figures and provide more by- products that will further propel growth. The waste produced by the birds is a threat to the environment because of improper disposal and utilization of millions of tons of manure and litter soiled droppings produced daily. The waste generated by poultry is a problem to farmers as the high nitrogen content of the waste releases ammonia fumes in the air making environment unbearable, hence most poultry farmers are at a loss at how to manage the waste. Poultry waste normally is used as fertilizer for vegetable farm but it must be stored for about a period of 6 months before it can be used,the use of poultry waste to make bio-gas is a much better way. Chicken waste can be used to produce eco-friendly bio-gas which will provide energy in form of heat,gas(methane) for cooking and electricity and the digested slurry is disposed as treated fertilizer which has better market value. The use of the chicken manure to make gas requires specialized digester: the chicken manure is a peculiar waste to use to generate bio--gas because of the high nitrogen content ,but technology has found a way around it . The use of a specialized pre-treatment technology makes the anaerobic digestion easy, and the gas generated can be used to power homes and business across the country.

Sunday, February 22, 2015


Myiasis is a skin infestation of the coat of animals, also occurs in man. Myiasis occurs in most species including rabbit, the difference is in the species of fly that causes the infestation. Myiasis is also referred to as fly strike. Myiasis though seasonal ,usually occurs in animals with soiled coats as a result of diarrhoea, open wounds, water and urine. Myiasis in dogs occurs when the bot fly lays eggs on moist coat of dogs, the eggs hatch in 1-2 days into larvae which are actually maggots,this burrow into the coat causing irritation and pin point protrusions .The maggots burrow into the coat of the dog causing severe discomfort, oozing wounds, inappetence with starry coat. The consequence of the infestation depends on timely intervention, otherwise septicemia and shock occurs. The maggots burrows deep into underlining tissue,causing severe tissue damage,irritation as a result of secretions from the maggots,this predisposes the animal to secondary bacteria infection. Treatment will include shaving off projected points on coat, expressing the maggots out and cleaning the points. The points can be covered with gentamycin spray,and dog given ivermectin injection. The dog should be placed in a clean and dry environment, and environment can be sprayed with insecticides to prevent a recurrence. The dog should also be placed on cod-liver oil supplement with vitamins to hasten healing and growth of coat.

Monday, February 16, 2015


Starting a pig farm requires detailed planning and management. The success of raising pigs is hinged on the types of breed you select,feeding technique,operations management,housing and disease prevention and control. Bio-security protocols for the pig farm must be well stated and strict compliance is necessary. The pig farm must be on a well drained land,with adequate water supply,electricity and good roads with easy access to major markets. The housing of the pigs plays a vital role to the success of the production process and as such this must be the first consideration. HOUSING; pigs must be housed in solid structures,the house must be raised about 60cm above the ground.The floor should be made of concrete with the surface roughened to prevent slipping.The floor should be slopping to facilitate easy cleaning with water and run- off of urine.The house should be comfortable with good ventilation and shade. The walls of the house must be partially open to allow movement air through the house , must be solid to protect against predators and allows feeding of the pigs from outside without entering the pen. The pig building is divided into different pens for each phase of production cycle.The number and size of pens will depend on the number of piglets to be housed.The recommended floor requirement is as follows; 20 sqft/piglet, 30sqft/grower and 40sqft/finisher.


The Ebola virus causes a deadly disease in man the Ebola virus transmitted from animals such as bats and primates(monkeys and apes) to humans through hunting,collection,processing, and consumption. The fruit bats,monkeys and apes are sources of forest meat/ bush meat in some African countries which potentiates spread of the virus.The consumption of fruits contaminated with fruit bats saliva is also a source of infection. The virus has been kicked out of Nigeria,its still ravaging in some African countries with tales of woe and death. It has been documented that outbreak of the Ebola virus infection normally starts with an index human case who has had contact with the reservoir host.The human to human transmission of the virus occurs by contact with infected body fluid,blood and secretions. The virus is also transmitted by contact with contaminated contaminated surfaces ,items,syringes and bedding. The signs and symptoms of the infection occur between 2-21 days,(but on an average of 10 days),these are fever,headache,diarrhea,vomiting,weakness,stomach pain,lack of appetite,bleeding from all orifices,joint and muscle pain. The Ebola virus infection can be prevented by avoiding contact with wild animals such as bats and monkeys,avoid contact with infected persons and cultivate the simple hygiene of hand washing and sanitizing. The environment can also be decontaminated by cleaning with full strength bleach solution.the virus is inactivated by strong chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite. The simple practice of hand washing and sanitizing plays a vital role to prevent spread of infection. The Ebola virus is inactivated when in contact with sodium hypochlorite(household bleach),so keep your environment safe and free,incorporate the use of bleach- water solution to your cleaning protocol to clean floor,walls and sidewalks. The use of the bleach solution to clean areas with high human traffic such as banks,malls,market,hospitals and parks is a good method to keep disease pathogens away. Isolation will be of immense benefit, when you notice a person is sick with classical signs of Ebola virus infection such as fever,diarrhoea,vomiting and bleeding from all orifices. If you need to travel stay away from countries with Ebola virus infection crisis, do not eat wild animals or purchase items made from animal byproducts such as drums,house decor. The best way to stop the virus is to prevent it,dont stop hand washing; hands up# stay safe# CLEAN IT # WASH IT# BLEACH IT.

Thursday, February 12, 2015


Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease affecting birds,its caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus EIMERIA. There are various species of eimeria affecting different segments of the intestine.The parasite is introduced to the flock by ingestion of the oocyst from dropping of infected birds,contaminated litter and bedding.The protozoan parasite effects on intestines results in poor feed utilization and malabsorption due to damage of intestinal lining.The damage to intestinal lining predisposes the birds to cross infection by Clostridium perfringens,which causes necrotic enteritis. The economic implication of coccidiosis on poultry production can be overuled simply by vaccinating birds at day one.This stimulates development of natural immunity against eimeria. This early exposure confers protection on the birds so that the intestinal health is maintained, which ensures that feed consumed is properly absorbed and utilized. Feeding accounts for 75% of cost of production in poultry, it is of pertinent importance that factors that will increase the cost should be avoided. Disease control/ prevention and management protocols should be well planned with strict compliance. Coccidiosis is a global issue and strategies have evolved over the years on management of the disease,vaccination of the flock has been adduced the most effective. Vaccination of birds coupled with moisture management in litters plays a significant role in prevention of coccidiosis.The production of drug-free animals for human consumption has further tipped vaccination as a better option to prevent coccidiosis in poultry. The campaign of no antibiotics and anticoccidials in poultry feed has been incorporated in Japan with the CP Bangkok producing drug-free birds.Dr Kreeta Khanti, a veterinarian and senior vice president stated that 1/2 of the 60 million broiler chicken produced annually by the Charoen Pokphand's poultry operation are now raised without antibiotics and anticoccidials. The company has stated that vaccinating for coccidiosis is a better option,it allows production of drug-free birds without sacrificing weight gain,conversion or profitability. The option of vaccination adds more value to their products and premium price on their products. The consumers today are much more concerned about what they eat,how the products are produced,handled stored and packaged.This awareness has made people kick against unwholesome products and opt in for organic foods/ antibiotic-free animal by products. Animal health is indeed human health.

Saturday, February 7, 2015


Coccidiosis a common disease of poultry caused by the parasite Eimeria of various spp. The Eimeria spp,affects the intestines of birds,some species affect the caeca and others the small intestine. Chicken affected by coccidiosis show varying signs depending on the type of the organisms that are affecting the birds. Birds are generally in bad conditions,depressed,blood in droppings, inappetence,pale comb , wattles and diarrhoea. Chicks with coccidiosis have a hunched appearance, droopy wings and the chicks appear sleepy.The effect of coccidiosis in chicks could result in acute epidemic,wasting and sudden death. The effect of coccidiosis on birds has huge impact on the production rate of the birds because of how the parasite affects the intestines and the resultant effect on feed absorption , conversion and weight gain. Coccidiosis in early stages of chick development impairs absorption and utilization of feed ,which compromises the growth of the birds and feed conversion. This results in high production cost because more feed will be required to meet market size. The exposure of chicks to live vaccine early in production will protect birds by stimulating the production of protective immunity to coccidiosis by delivering uniformly low doses of live oocysts. The use of vaccination to prevent coccidiosis is a better strategy compared to in- feed anticoccidials, or oral medication of coccidiostats. Eimeria parasite causing coccidiosis are often resistant to anticoccidial drugs, which results in sub-clinical coccidiosis often associated with in-feed anticoccidials and oral coccidiostat. Sub-clinical coccidiosis , occurs when in- feed anticoccidials lose effectiveness,thereby causing the coccidial oocyst to leak into the flock. The effect of sub-clinical coccidiosis are increased mal-absorption,reduced effective caloric value and high production cost.The coccidiosis challenge is one that impact poultry production,so it is of paramount importance to use vaccination as a tool to prevent coccidiosis. Vaccinate your birds against coccidiosis!!!!!. protect your birds!!!!. The pic are showing post mortem lesion of chicken affected by Eimeria spp. A) shows the distended small intestine with mottled haemorrhage. C) shows a cut section of the ceca showing heamorrhages . B)the severe pallor of pectoral muscle as a result of haemorrhage in ceaca.

Friday, February 6, 2015


Animal husbandry/ production has gone through turns and curves,coming up with different strategies and methods to enhance production of the animals. The industry is currently under fire to stop the use of antibiotics in feed as growth promoters. The feed additive directly affects the animals,their production rate and their products which indirectly impacts human health. The impact of antibiotics in animal feed on human health has been linked to antibiotic resistance resulting in superbugs,thus more and more people are looking for alternatives. There is a paradigm shift in the animal food industry on how animals are raised and managed,some older forms of management are been ditched for newer approaches. The just concluded international production and processing expo (IPPE) in Atlanta,U.S Dr Andrew Read of the Pennysylvania state university remarked that vaccination makes viruses "hot" more dangerous,he sited the Marek's disease stating that some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens. Prebiotics and Probiotics have also been added to feed to ensure git health,thus promoting better absorption of feed in animals resulting in enhanced growth and excellent feed conversion. Probiotics are alternatives to antibiotic in feed,these are incorporated into feed to manage the normal microflora of the gut which ensures the following 1) strengthen bowel wall. 2)improve mineral absorption. 3)it nurtures good bacteria , stifle production of bad,disease-causing bacteria and it causes multiplication of beneficial bacteria. Probotics are usually live bacteria ,examples are Lactobacillus spp,Enterococcus faecum,Bacillus spp and bifidobacterium spp. Prebiotics are specialized plant fiber that beneficially nourishes the good bacteria,the plant fibers act as fertilizers to promote the growth of many good bacteria in the gut.The prebiotic usually contain both inulin and oligofructose,which treats the entire bowel wall for maximum effectiveness. The combination of prebiotic and probiotic is referred to as synbiotics, is an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. The change train is on the move, join in now.Stop the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed.


The ATOVI premix powder; generally referred to as the wonder feed powder.Its a feed additive, a blend of vitamins and minerals developed by nanotechnology.The ATOVI POWDER when included in animal feed promotes growth,build better muscle,uniformity of flock, improves feed conversion and utilization. The powder boost immune system,improves breeding operation,lowers feed intake, prevents diseases,controls odor of fecal matter,promotes fast recovery when used on debilitated animals. ATOVI POWDER, is used in all animal species without any side effects in man or the animals.There are no antibiotic residues in products thus enhancing better human health. Get yours today. Atovi for better animal production and management.

Monday, February 2, 2015

Antibiotic resistance # New strategies #

The misuse of antibiotics in animals and man has resulted in antibiotic resistance which is a global concern.Drug resistant bacteria are responsible for hundreds of deaths,and this has been estimated to reach millions in the coming years if no action is initiated. Scientist/researchers have been at the fore front of plans to stop this menace, President Obama has also given his voice to the fight against superbugs.The white house budget include a big funding to stop the antibiotic resistance problem, which is to be channeled to the development of the breakthrough drug "TEIXOBACTIN".This drug has been discovered to be more potent than existing antibiotics and has been proven that many bacteria strains are susceptible to it,confirming its efficacy. The drug was discovered in the soil and holds a possible remedy to end the antibiotic resistance scourge. In another development,a group of researchers in Tel Aiv university have come up with the use of a virus that makes the antibiotic-resistant bacteria sick and weak ,such that its killed off by the drug. A paper recently published of the proceedings of the national academy of sciences; prof Udi Qimron and his team showed how a bacteriophage; a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium, changes the DNA ,crippling the activity of a protein that allows it to maintain its cell structure.Without the protein ,the bacteria essentially collapses on itself,the bacteria is destroyed totally and becomes easy to combat with this current antibiotic. The war on antibiotic resistance has started with various sectors innovating new methods and approaches to save human lives and our world. Join the move now!!!! Resist indiscriminate antibiotic use in animal production to prevent antibiotic resistance!!!

Antibiotic resistance# Superbugs.

This is how it all began................................ Thanks to C.D.C for the pictorial expression. Join the change movement!!! resist the use of antibiotic in animal feed!!!. YOU ARE WHAT YOUR ANIMALS EAT!!!!


Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's most pressing public health concern,the center for disease control and prevention records that 2 million illnesses and 23,000 deaths are caused each year by antibiotic- resistant bacteria in the US alone.This has prompted president Obama to sign an executive order September 2014,launching federal efforts to combat the rise in antibiotic-resistance bacterial illness. The order resulted in the constitution of a task force,comprising of representatives of agriculture colleges,universities,pharmaceutical industry,animal agriculture community,veterinarians and other stakeholders,with the goal to advice the government on research agenda for alternatives to antibiotics in animal feed and to help publicly disseminate information on the effects of antibiotics in production agriculture,the group is to submit a report early February 2015. Scientist,food processors,food retailers, veterinarians and some concerned citizens have shown concern about the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria referred to as superbugs in veterinary and human medicine.The W.H.O & C.D.C have expressed serious concern as well,that some bacteria have developed defenses against different classes of antibiotic compounds. The W.H.O has called antibiotic resistance a problem so serious that it threatens the achievement of modern medicine and if immediate actions are not initiated,the world might go back to "pre antibiotic era." The center for science and environment has reported that it has found some antibiotic residue in some chickens sampled in Delhi,India.The center reports that the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in poultry production has been linked to growing antibiotic resistance in Indians. India is currently experiencing a deadly antibiotic-resistant bacteria epidemic,where tens of thousands of newborns are dying ;last year about 58,000 newborns died because medicine can no longer effectively treat bacterial infections, this has prompted the C.S.E to seek a ban on use of antibiotics in poultry. Researchers have discovered superbugs carrying a genetic code first identified in India, in other countries such as France,Japan and U.S. All efforts must be geared towards the ban on antibiotics in animal feed,and also suitable alternatives must be initiated to achieve a healthy flock,optimum production and wholesome by-products.There are some alternatives currently used by only few producers, such as the Atovi powder, probiotics,prebiotics, organic acids, inclusion of green algae and organic feed e.t.c if more producers imbibe other alternatives ,then superbugs era will soon be history. The superbugs effect has confirmed that;WE ARE WHAT WE FEED OUR ANIMALS. JOIN THE CHANGE MOVEMENT!!!! SAY NO TO ANTIBIOTICS IN ANIMAL FEED.