Search This Blog

Showing posts with label Tuberculosis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tuberculosis. Show all posts

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Posh ‘natural’ pet food recalled as cats and their owners develop bovine tuberculosis.

Posh ‘natural’ pet food recalled as cats and their owners develop bovine tuberculosis.Fifty pedigree animals on a pricy gourmet diet have been taken ill and at least one has died, with two people also infected..A luxury cat food designed for pedigree pets has triggered an outbreak of a deadly strain of tuberculosis that has infected 50 cats and at least two of their owners. The “natural cat” wild venison cat food has been subjected to a nationwide recall by Natural Instinct, the company which sold it to thousands of cat owners as a healthier alternative to mass-produced pet food. It follows research by veterinary scientists at Edinburgh University who investigated why 50 cats in 30 homes around Britain had developed bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Almost all the cats were expensive pedigrees whose owners kept them indoors, meaning they had no contact with livestock or wild animals which can carry such infections. The one thing all the cats had in common was that they were fed Natural Instinct’s raw wild venison cat food which costs about £4.50 for two daily portions, compared with under 20p for a typical dried cat food. Bovine TB is related to human TB and is now so common in UK cattle that strains are infecting wildlife such as badgers, foxes and deer. Danielle Gunn-Moore, professor of feline medicine at Edinburgh University, who co-authored the research, said: “Raw meat diets could be good for cats, in theory, but there is a clear risk of infection so checks are vital. It’s not just bTB — there’s also a risk of toxoplasmosis, salmonella and other pathogens.”She and her colleagues gathered reports of bovine TB in cats in 30 households around the UK. The team had to test 90 felines and refer 100 people for tests. Two people have been found to be infected but more could emerge.

Sunday, December 9, 2018

AGRIBUSINESS: Under-nutrition a ‘potent accelerant’ of TB(tuberculosis) epidemic.

AGRIBUSINESS: Under-nutrition a ‘potent accelerant’ of TB(tuberculosis) epidemic. Under-nutrition, which affects nearly 800 million people worldwide, is a “potent accelerant” of the global tuberculosis epidemic, impacting disease incidence and treatment outcomes in infected patients, according to researchers. According to the 2018 WHO Global Tuberculosis Report, the global TB burden is not shrinking fast enough to reach milestones set by the End TB Strategy, which aims to reduce TB deaths by 90% and new cases by 80% by 2030. To reach those targets, officials say case identification and treatment gaps must be closed and action must be taken to further understand TB. “Under-nutrition is also the leading risk factor for TB and almost one in five cases of TB worldwide can be attributed to it. About 800 million individuals worldwide are undernourished due to a panoply of socioeconomic reasons. These unfortunate individuals are incredibly vulnerable to the ravages of the TB epidemic.” Summarizing their review, Sinha and colleagues said the impact that under-nutrition has on TB means addressing it will be a vital component of the End TB Strategy. They aimed to investigate its effect on immune response, vaccine response and TB incidence, severity and treatment outcomes.

Monday, May 14, 2018

Depression: a ‘serious public health hazard’ for people with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Depression: a ‘serious public health hazard’ for people with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa.Untreated depression could seriously compromise treatment outcomes for people living with HIV.Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among people living with HIV. They are, according to statistics from western countries, two to three times more likely to develop symptoms compared to the general population. However, critics suggest that ‘insufficient attention’ is being placed on mental health issues in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where the majority of people living with HIV live and are in care. Published in the journal, PLoS ONE, a recent meta-analysis and review of studies investigating the link between HIV and depression has now revealed that prevalence ranges from a low of 3% among people on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to a high of 34% among treatment-na├»ve individuals across SSA countries.

Saturday, December 9, 2017

TB a leading cause of death among children worldwide.

TB a leading cause of death among children worldwide. Tuberculosis ranks among the top 10 causes of death among children around the world, a mathematical modeling study showed. Researchers wrote that the disease represents a “key omission” from analyses of mortality in children aged younger than 5 years. “The UN Inter-agency Group on Child Mortality Estimation tracks overall under-5 mortality, and breakdowns by cause of death have been estimated by the study group formerly known as the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group, most recently in 2016,” Peter J. Dodd, PhD, of the University of Sheffield, UK, and colleagues wrote. “These estimates have been important in assessing progress toward targets, directing public health funding and spending and for advocacy. However, tuberculosis has never been explicitly mentioned in these reports. The researchers used a mathematical model to estimate deaths of children aged younger than 5 years in 217 countries and territories. Dodd and colleagues disaggregated WHO pediatric TB estimates by age, as well as treatment status and HIV status, using pediatric TB notification data and pediatric ART estimates. Most deaths –more than 70% – occurred in southeast Asia and Africa (n = 182,000; 95% CI, 140,000-239,000), the researchers reported. Seventeen percent (n = 39,000; 95% CI, 23,000-73,000) of children who died had HIV, with 31,000 of those children living in Africa (36%; 95% CI, 19,000-59,000). The vast majority of children who died (96%; n = 230,000; 95% CI, 185,000-289,000) did not receive treatment for TB, Dodd and colleagues wrote. The large mortality burden of undiagnosed pediatric tuberculosis should … not spur hopelessness, but action; these new estimates identify a prime opportunity to address an under-recognized and preventable cause of child deaths.

RESEARCH: Curcumin may help overcome drug-resistant tuberculosis.

RESEARCH: Curcumin may help overcome drug-resistant tuberculosis. Curcumin may help overcome drug-resistant tuberculosis.New research indicates that curcumin -- a substance in turmeric that is best known as one of the main components of curry powder -- may help fight drug-resistant tuberculosis. RESEARCH: Curcumin may help overcome drug-resistant tuberculosis. In Asia, turmeric is used to treat many health conditions and it has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and perhaps even anticancer properties. Investigators found that by stimulating human immune cells called macrophages, curcumin was able to successfully remove Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative bacterium of tuberculosis, from experimentally infected cells in culture. The process relied on inhibiting the activation of a cellular molecule called nuclear factor-kappa B. The ability of curcumin to modulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis points to a potential new tuberculosis treatment that would be less prone to the development of drug resistance.

RESEARCH: How To Fight Tuberculosis.

RESEARCH: How To Fight Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is one of the most widespread life-threatening infectious diseases. Not only does antibiotic resistance make treatment increasingly difficult, but the bacteria's relatively impermeable mycomembrane also limits the effectiveness of many drugs. RESEARCH: How To Fight Tuberculosis. In search of new antibiotics, researchers have developed a structural analogue of mycolic acid, the essential membrane building block. This drug blocks key enzymes used in mycomembrane biosynthesis, significantly increasing the effectiveness of conventional antibiotics.

Thursday, November 30, 2017

AGRIBUSINESS: Bovine tuberculosis a major source of human tuberculosis in Nigeria.

Bovine tuberculosis a major source of human tuberculosis in Nigeria. According to recent reports Nigeria ranks 4th in TB infection worldwide. Statistics also shows that 80% of TB cases in Nigeria are undetected and it claims 1.2 million lives annually,this is a sad scenario for a disease that is preventable and treatable.
Bovine tuberculosis has been identified as a major source of human tuberculosis infections which is usually fatal because of late detection and non-diagnosis. Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium spp is usually transmitted by aerosol route when one comes into contact with droplets of infected persons. The bacteria can also be transmitted through consumption of products from infected animals such as beef and unpasteurized milk. Tuberculosis can affect anybody but there is a higher incidence in men than women,and its also an occupational hazard for butchers,food processors, farmers and veterinarians. The majority of infections in Nigeria can be traced to the abattoir,making it a foci of infection and re-infection. A percentage of cattle brought in for slaughter often are confirmed as having bovine tuberculosis,with the offals, and lymph nodes riddled with tubercles as shown in the picture. Butchers often refer to lungs with TB as "fuku elegusi" and in a bid to convince you its okay,cut part of the raw meat and eat it. This singular act by butchers have caused deaths of many of them who eventually develop tuberculosis,which is usually generalized. When the butchers start coughing,nobody thinks its TB, they start taking antibiotics for the cough but it does not stop it. These prolonged used of various antibiotics is the reason there is a prevalence of the drug-resistant type of TB.
These butchers still handle beef,working in the abattoir and spreading the droplets everywhere and even in their homes. Living conditions of most the people working in abattoirs is such that droplets can spread fast,as most live in congested rooms with poor ventilation and very dirty environment. A study carried out shows that most of the butchers have tuberculosis,but this is under reported as many of the butchers dont believe TB is real or can cause deaths,instead they link these deaths to rivalry and arrows from jealous colleagues. Veterinarians and public health officials are also at great risk of infection. Post mortem inspection is a major point of infection,handling the tuberculous organs is another route of infection and also consumption of tainted meat or offals .Tuberculosis infection in officers have been overlooked sometimes,going undiagnosed and thereby potentiating the spread. An officer who served for an extended period in the control post and abattoir recently died of cerebral tuberculosis,buttressing the study that bovine tuberculosis is a key factor of tuberculosis infection in man.

Sunday, March 20, 2016

How animals can give you tuberculosis.

Cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis are spreading infections to humans by the following routes ;eating unpasteurized milk products form infected herds is a prime source of infection and Living and working in close proximity to infected animals also puts humans at risk. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people were infected by tuberculosis, according to the World Health Organization. Potentially fatal -- 1.5 million died from it the same year -- it is a disease known to be spread from human to human. But a subset of those contracting the disease today are getting it from infected animals. Tuberculosis can spread through your food, as well as the air, via infected animals.The most common culprits are infected cattle and the most common source are their infected food products, such as milk and cheese. Cows and many other animals can harbor bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis -- a close relative of the bacteria that cause human tuberculosis. Risk of human disease rises when animal infections aren't controlled. The existence of Bovine TB among animals and humans is not unique to the Americas. The disease is found globally, particularly in Africa and parts of Asia, and in a 2012 study by the International Livestock Research Institute, more than 7% of livestock screened globally tested positive for the disease. "[In India] people are very intimately associated with their cows ... we look after the cattle, men sleep in the area where cattle are tethered ... the proximity is very close," says Krishna Prasad Hanumanthappa from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Hanumanthappa has seen the presence of both regular and bovine TB cow milk in India. Here, however, he says ingestion is not the main concern."The practice of boiling milk has been one of the greatest safeguards we've had on transmission," says Hanumanthappa. He instead worries about the disease spreading through other means. Bacteria can be excreted through fecal matter, urine, coughs, and sneezes," he explains. In most countries in Africa, bovine TB is endemic, but experts say regular milk pasteurization and slaughterhouse meat inspections are rare. "We used to see a lot of cattle slaughtered with TB lesions in the lungs of the animals ... and locals eat these products," says Simeon Cadmus, from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. His recent study of a sample of livestock workers in Nigeria found 6-7% of traders and butchers to be infected with TB of some kind. Cadmeus also worries about people rearing cattle who live closely with their cows. "They eat, drink and stay all their lives with their cattle," says Cadmeus who adds that further studies of his among herds have found 40-60% of cattle infected. "Because of poor animal health issues ... the pastoralists also get infected," he says. Read more here; http://edition.cnn.com/2015/12/23/health/tuberculosis-from-animals/index.html

Thursday, October 29, 2015

EARLY DETECTION OF TUBERCULOSIS..

Tuberculosis a zoonotic disease and debilitating disease characterized by cough,muscle wasting,immuno suppression e.t.c.The prognosis of case is based on early detection,availability of drugs and frequency of use. The early detection of tuberculosis is vital to the success of treatment. A new study has shown a new method for early detection,read more; http://www.healio.com/infectious-disease/respiratory-infections/news/online/%7Bc3837a71-6a73-437d-8175-993ccd395e5a%7D/novel-assay-detects-tb-in-early-stages-of-disease?utm_source=maestro&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=infectious%20disease%20news

Saturday, June 20, 2015

AGRIBUSINESS: FOOD SAFETY IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY..

AGRIBUSINESS: FOOD SAFETY IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY.Food safety is of paramount importance in meat industry;handling,processing,packaging and storage are hazard analysis critical points(HACCP).Food safety deals with protocol/procedure that are employed to prevent food borne illness,which are usually fatal. AGRIBUSINESS: FOOD SAFETY IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY. Food safety in meat industry actually begins on the farm where these animals are raised; the feeding,medication and management practice play vital roles in the quality of meat that is processed and sold.The animals are fed on balanced rations,given required vaccination and medication.The animals are not raised on growth promoters or other hormones that impact human health,and all drugs administered must have been completely expelled from system before slaughter. AGRIBUSINESS: FOOD SAFETY IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY.. The animals presented for slaughter must be healthy,and certified fit by veterinarian at antemortem inspection.Sick,debilitated and pregnant animals are not to be slaughtered. The animals are to be slaughtered in a clean facility with clean water source,the food processors must be well equipped to prevent transfer of microorganism to the carcass.Water plays a vital role in the abattoir because its the medium used to clean the carcasses,floors,drains and working area.The carcass is duly inspected and diseased parts are condemned,or in some cases the entire carcass is condemned. Hand washing is very important; hands should be washed at intervals during processing to prevent food borne illness.Food can easily be contaminated during transportation and storage,hence proper cooling vans must be used in transporting meat,and these must be stored at right temperature to prevent growth of bacteria. Meat presented for sale must have following qualities;1) clean. 2) have no odor/foul smell. 3) have no lumps,pustules or swellings . 4) must not have holes/tunnel with flukes ,5)must not discharge any fluid/pus 6) must no give off any color-tinged fluid when pressed 7) must maintain original color. When meat is processed must be done at proper temperature,exposure of meat to environmental elements such as dust,flies, and excessive exposure to sun affect the quality of meat with resultant impact on human health. When next you are in the meat market , check it out properly before you buy.