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Tuesday, June 30, 2015


WELCOME TO THE WATERMELON MONTH.............JULY IS THE OFFICIAL WATERMELON MONTH,ENJOY. Watermelon is a highly nutritious fruit packed with nutrients that help body function properly.It is made up of 92% of water,making it a perfect hydration source when body fluids are depleted.Its juice has a calming effect on blood vessels,thus making it valuable in management of hypertension. Potassium is of the minerals found in watermelon,this helps in regulation of water/electrolyte balance making it valuable in control of heart rate and blood pressure.It protects against stroke and coronary heart disease,regulating blood pressure. Watermelon contains vitamin C, B ,A, it also contains dietary fiber that is essential for digestive health.The watermelon is a colorful fruit ,adding color to meals,salad or snack bowl,the red pigment is as a result of lycopene which is in high quantity in the fruit. Lycopene is an antioxidant responsible for destroying any free radicals in the body which normally damage cells and destroys immune system.These free radicals are cancer causing elements,but lycopene mops them up thus preventing several types of cancer and lycopene helps to fight heart disease Watermelon contains flavonoids,carotenoids and tritepenoids which have anti inflammatory and antioxidant properties, this is the reason why watermelon prevent muscle soreness,joint pain and arthritis.The antioxidant property offers protection against colon,prostate,breast,endometrial,lung and pancreatic cancers. Watermelon contains citrulline which is an essential amino acid, this is converted to arginine another essential amino acid essentially by the kidneys.Watermelon has natural diuretic properties ,thus helping to maintain kidney health by flushing out of the tubule at regular interval thus preventing urolith formation. The benefits of watermelon are enormous,and they also offer same benefits to the animal world. Dogs can be fed with watermelon to supplement their meal, or as a snack or treat, you can also use it as a treatment option in cases of kidney problems or weight management in dogs. Watermelon given to dogs must be clean,diced/cubed and seedless, and give moderate servings /mealtime. If your dog is eating poop; supplement with watermelon and you will be amazed at the result.

Monday, June 29, 2015

Why your dog is eating poop.

Dogs are energetic and always on the move,looking at stuff,digging,running around and all other stuff.Most dog owners can tolerate the fast paced life of these hairy creatures but detests the poop eating habit,yes habit! can be corrected. Dogs eat poop for various reasons such as 1) nutritional deficiencies. 2) social behavior. 3) Restlessness/boredom .4) environment .5)starvation. The poop eating habit of dogs though disgusting , may be a signal to the owner that the diet is not complete/balanced,the management techniques are wrong and house training is inadequate. Dog food must be a balanced ration of carbohydrate,protein,fats/oil with minerals and vitamins,hence dogs on incomplete rations are deficient in certain elements needed for growth and proper body functioning and maintenance of body systems.The dog will try to makeup for the inadequacy by eating up the poop with the intention of getting more nutrients. Dog training should include house training, dogs should have a schedule when they are taken out to poop and where the training is excellent ,dogs are prevented from eating poop.Dogs that are kept tied up for long periods without any supervision,can also resort to poop eating when hungry or out of sheer boredom. The environment also plays a role in the poop eating behavior; rural dwellers in certain countries encourage their dogs to eat poop, when humans poop they give it to their dogs,some others even allow the dog lick the bum of the child to clean it.Dogs living in such environment eating poop is normal,and since dogs learn by observation it spreads to the pack they run with and they also pass the habit down to their pups as the bitch normally eats poop of her pups to keep the kennel clean.Social behavior also contribute to dog eating poop, dogs in a pack that eats poop will also assume its normal and will follow suit while dogs running with another pack that eats poop will also pick up the habit. Dogs that are starved, or given small rations at longer intervals tend to look for alternate sources of food,this dog eating poop is not limited to their own but to poop of other animals.Dogs pick up certain habits out of boredom ; poop eating can also fall in this category.The prevention of this habit will depend on the underlining cause,and if this is corrected ,the dog will stop eating poop.

Sunday, June 21, 2015


Human health is impacted by various factors hinged on animal health. It has been discovered that 70% of diseases in humans are caused by pathogens of animal origin,hence animal health is really human health. The various animal pathogen can affected man through consumption of their products and byproducts,hence proper handling,processing and packaging are very essential. Food handling plays a vital role in food safety and every protocol to ensure that meat is wholesome and fit for human consumption must be put in place.The health status of the animals from the farm to slaughter is very important and must be addressed.Adequate inspection of carcasses in abattoirs is key to meat safety and consumption of wholesome meat and meat products . Meat presented for sale must be clean,odorless,with no swellings/pus exuding.Meat must be hygienically processed and packaged before being adjudged wholesome and fit for human consumption. These pictures show diseased animal organs that should never be consumed,but condemned and discarded.

Saturday, June 20, 2015


Food safety is of paramount importance in meat industry;handling,processing,packaging and storage are hazard analysis critical points(HACCP).Food safety deals with protocol/procedure that are employed to prevent food borne illness,which are usually fatal. Food safety in meat industry actually begins on the farm where these animals are raised; the feeding,medication and management practice play vital roles in the quality of meat that is processed and sold.The animals are fed on balanced rations,given required vaccination and medication.The animals are not raised on growth promoters or other hormones that impact human health,and all drugs administered must have been completely expelled from system before slaughter. The animals presented for slaughter must be healthy,and certified fit by veterinarian at antemortem inspection.Sick,debilitated and pregnant animals are not to be slaughtered. The animals are to be slaughtered in a clean facility with clean water source,the food processors must be well equipped to prevent transfer of microorganism to the carcass.Water plays a vital role in the abattoir because its the medium used to clean the carcasses,floors,drains and working area.The carcass is duly inspected and diseased parts are condemned,or in some cases the entire carcass is condemned. Hand washing is very important; hands should be washed at intervals during processing to prevent food borne illness.Food can easily be contaminated during transportation and storage,hence proper cooling vans must be used in transporting meat,and these must be stored at right temperature to prevent growth of bacteria. Meat presented for sale must have following qualities;1) clean. 2) have no odor/foul smell. 3) have no lumps,pustules or swellings . 4) must not have holes/tunnel with flukes ,5)must not discharge any fluid/pus 6) must no give off any color-tinged fluid when pressed 7) must maintain original color. When meat is processed must be done at proper temperature,exposure of meat to environmental elements such as dust,flies, and excessive exposure to sun affect the quality of meat with resultant impact on human health. When next you are in the meat market , check it out properly before you buy.


Food safety refers to methods,procedures and protocols that are practiced in food industry.These procedures/protocol are put in place during processing, packaging and transportation. Food safety is very important to human health because it prevents food-borne diseases that could be fatal.Food safety prevents hazards in food that cause injury,illness and sometimes death.These hazards could be physical,biological or chemical in nature , found in food and drinks, have varying impacts on human health.The susceptibility of individuals to these hazards vary with children being major subjects followed by elderly older than 65, then pregnant women and lastly immune compromised individuals. The physical hazard include stones,broken glass,plastic cuts,jewelry,rings,pieces of fabric(shredding table cloth ) and boards e.t.c.The hazard usually occur during processing,packing and storage.The food processors are usually the major cause of these form of hazard; the work unit,tools and personal hygiene have all being pinned as sources of food hazard. Chemical hazard include poisonous substances,chemicals ,soaps,detergents or cleaning liquids that are spilled during food processing.Pesticides,rodenticides and paints have also being fingered as hazard in food industry. Biological hazards are microorganism ,which include bacteria,viruses and parasites.The parasites are usually tiny worms in beef,pork and fish; these parasites are usually found in contaminated water,used in processing.Bacteria grow in food under certain conditions such as low temperatures,fecal contamination,or cross contamination which result in food spoilage and food borne illness.These bacteria contaminate food during processing handling and storage. Viruses in food usually contaminate food during processing ,these are usually from food processors that are coughing,sneezing,and picking nose.These can be prevented by maintaining high level of hygiene by food processors. Food borne illness can be prevented by implementing the following ;1) high standard of personal hygiene. 2)temperature control. 3) preventing of cross contamination between various food items. 4)cleaning of utensils,working area and cutting boards. 5) proper packaging and storage. Personal hygiene will include washing hands before handling meat,after using toilet and after handling various raw food.The food processor must not wear jewelry and accessories that can easily drop off during production, nails must be cut short and clean,hair must be covered and neat clean clothing must be worn. The processor must wear clean overall,gloves and clean working shoes.The health status of food processors play a vital role in the level of safety of the food ,hence processors that are ill, coughing,sneezing, vomiting or have diarrhea should not handle food.Food operators must undergo regular checkup to ascertain health status,any case tuberculosis,hepatitis,HIV/AIDS should be reported. Hand washing plays an important role in food safety and the benefits cannot be overemphasized; hand washing removes microorganisms and should be done throughout the day.

Thursday, June 18, 2015

How to compound fish feed .

Fish feed could be natural ,using natural sources such ac insects,maggot,tadpoles,zoo plankton or plankton.Fish could also be fed a compounded ration, this could be home-made or finished feed. A combination of ingredients are used in stipulated amounts to boost growth. A combination of both natural and compounded ration can also be employed to save cost. FEED COMPOUNDING,Using fish meal,soya beans,groundnut cake,premix and binder. The ingredients are added as follows; fish meal...........50% soya beans...............24% groundnut cake............18% premix.................6% cornflour..............2%. The various ingredients are weighed out,grind ed and mixed thoroughly.These ingredients are mixed and held with use of binder(flour),the flour is mixed with water to form a paste,this is then added to the mixture and you continue to mix until a thick paste is formed.The mixture is dried in sun,and kept in air tight containers. The feed could be pelletized/granulated or fed as small lumps that break off when dropped in ponds.This will provide a good start for your fish at 12-28 days. Fish feed could also be made from fish meal,premix and raw egg as binder. The composition of the feed: fish meal ....92% premix ......8% and the raw egg as binder. All ingredients are mixed,the egg is mixed with water to form a paste,this then dried in the sun and kept in air tight containers.They can be presented as granular or fed as small lumps at pond corners. Unconventional feeding method is the use of grind-ed crayfish, which id grounded to fine particles, and mixed with fine chopped cassava flakes(garri).This is mixed with the crayfish to form a paste,this is then put in corners of the pond,to feed the fish.


Feed must be balanced in all essential nutrients in terms of carbohydrate,protein,fat and oil. Vitamins and minerals are also essential for growth,balance and total health status of fish.The various component manifest different signs when absent in feed,the most prominent sign is stunted growth,delayed harvest s=,reduced survival rate.Vitamins and minerals in feed are essential to regulate metabolism,thus any deficiency results in ill health,imbalance and deformations. Scoliosis refers to skeletal deformations in the body of fish.The fish is bent backwards,head tilted and skin peeling.This condition is as a result of vitamin c deficiency, it also occurs when calcium or phosphorus is also lacking in feed.Skeletal deformations can also result from contamination of pond with heavy metals such as mercury. Calcium and phosphorus deficiency could also result in "running horse disease"; where fish swim violently in groups around sides of pond in uncoordinated manner.Fish could also appear darkened(burnt out) or sometimes black,these fish have smaller bodies and big head.This condition is linked to anaemia,and has been traced to incomplete feed. Fish feed must be balanced for the value to be noticed ,hence nutrients must be properly balanced and mixed. Atovi premix is an essential part of feed,its complete with needed nutrients at required levels. Atovi premix ensures growth and early harvest of fish.The premix ensures a blend and perfect balance of the feed,it enhances the metabolism of feed ensuring proper absorption and reduce amount of waste.The use of atovi help prevent build up of nitrogenous waste thus purifies pond,there is a balance in aigae bloom,hence no death of micro organisms in filter.The atovi premix ensures proper inter-cellular function,hence there is no incidence of diseases in fish fed atovi premix.


Fish should be observed on a regular basis for signs of ill health,stress or any discomfort.This is the main reason why you must master your fish behavior;swimming patterns,feeding and response to stimuli so that any changes will be noticed and addressed. There must be an operational protocol,where the pipe works, pumps and general system are checked for leaks,damage,breaks or blockages . The pond is the controlled environment of the fish,and the health status of the fish is hinged on its stability and balance. Potential problems /deaths in ponds has been traced to biofilters.When nitrogenous wastes accumulate in ponds,they increase ammonia levels in ponds,causing death of microrganism in the biofilters which results in mass death of fish. The water parameters are to be checked at regular intervals as these are indicators of fish health status; dissolved oxygen,temperature,ammonia level,nitrate,nitrite,pH and phosphate are very important. Fish health can be judged good/bad based on observation.When fish are flicking or flashing its an indication of parasitic infestation or high nitrite concentration in water.Fish jumping also indicate parasitic infestation,gill problems or irritating contaminates in water. Rubbing against fish tank/wall is a clear indication of parasitic infestation.Stress is to be suspected when fish are swimming slowly,resting down in the pond and refusal of feed.Mucus covered fish points to stress as well as parasitic infestation Fish gasping for fresh air on water surface,or hanging around water inlet indicate a low level of dissolved oxygen in the pond. Parasitic infection could be by bacteria,fungi or viruses.Parasites could infect or infest the body of fish as in the case of fish lice,which causes severe irritation. When fish is observed with clamped fins,red streaks on skin its indicative of a bacterial infection,while whitish spots on fish giving a cotton-wool appearance is indicative of viral infection,these are usually complicated by secondary bacterial infection. Fish could also show lumps or pox-like lesion as in the case of carp pox,these usually disintegrate leaving ulcers that are also complicated by bacteria.Worms also affect health of fish,tapeworms in fish cause a change in body color resulting in dark-colored fish ,that are weak and swimming with open mouths The anchor worm causes proliferation of muscle. Fish farms must have some materials to facilitate easy management ,ease handling and ensure survival and health of fish.These include nets,water kit,bowl,gloves and indicator paper.


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Monday, June 15, 2015


Feeding fish accounts for about 65-75% of total cost of production,hence there is a need to understand the requirements of fish,the feed stuff ,and how to get the desired value for the cost of feeding. Fish feed must be a balanced meal consisting of carbohydrate,protein,fat and oil,and vitamin premix.The sources of these component will depend on availability,cost and weighed advantages of the feed stuff over other options. Carbohydrate sources can be any of the following; millet,maize,wheat,rice bran or sorghum.Protein sources include; soya beans,fish meal,groundnut cake.Fat and oil include palm oil,vegetable oil or fish oils.The vitamin premix is a combination of additives and supplements . Atovi premix is the choice for enhanced growth and early harvest. The combination of these various feed stuff depends on the age of the fish with regards to the crude protein level,and stage of development.Fish feed must posses certain qualities for it to be considered suitable for use; 1)it must be balanced;contain all components in required quantities. 2)it must be attractive and palatable to fish. 3)it must be cost effective. 4)must promote growth of fish. 5)must be stable in water but must not pollute the pond. fish feed depends on the management employed; feeding may be by using natural feed,compounded feed,live feed or a combination of natural and compounded ration.The compounded feed are presented in powdered ,granular or pelletized forms.Fish feed could also be presented in flakes,this is usually the form for ornamental fish.Natural feed include the normal feed that fishes are exposed to in their natural habitats such as aquatic weeds,water hyacinth and water lettuce. Phytoplankton,zoo-plankton,insects,shrimps,maggot,tadpoles and earthworm. Animal offals are also sometimes used to feed fish; these offals include chicken intestine,pig scrapings, and cattle cuttings. The offals are washed properly,boiled and then coated with cornflour to absorb oil,this is then fed to the fish.The flour helps prevent pollution in pond by limiting /preventing oil deposits. Eggs can be used as well; the eggs are boiled,shelled and the yolk is mixed with water to form a paste.This is then broadcast ed on the pond for fish to feed.The disadvantage of feeding with yolk is that the pond must be flushed after every meal to prevent contamination of pond. Fish are fed at specific times to create a rhythm/pattern,the feeding is done at specific points so that the fish can be easily observed and weak/inactive ones are isolated. The quality and quantity of the feed is important,as it plays a vital role in the success of the production.When feed is incomplete,inadequate and has potential to pollute pond,these hampers the growth and development of fish.

Saturday, June 13, 2015


Fish feed are natural components such as phyto planktons,zoo plankton,insects,maggots and shrimps.The compounded feed are a combination of wheat offal,fish meal,bone meal,groundnut cake,maize and soya bean meal.The best procedure will be a combination of natural and compounded feed. Phytoplanktons are natural water plants that are also used as fish feed. The making of zoo plankton as fish feed: 20kg of chicken waste,5kg of lime,5kg of NPK and 2kg of fish meal.These components are mixed ,then spread on the water surface.The zoo planktons will be observed by the 3rd day,these are observed as whitish bodies swimming in the pond. Maggots are produced for the fish by keeping a large piece of meat in a container and placed in a cool environment,the meat decomposes,and maggots evolves.These are then used to feed the fish.


Water parameters play a vital role in fish farming,these parameters are directly related to the stocking density ,feed and feeding technique.Oxygen levels in the pond must be maintained at 4mg/litre. The concentration can be altered when the weather changes such as excessive high temperature,this reduces the solubility of oxygen in the pond.This results in suffocation of the fish in the pond,this results in high mortality. The dissolved oxygen level is usually depleted in cases of heavy algae bloom,this results from excess use of manure in the pond.The amount of feed given at any point in time also imparts the level of oxygen.when there is overfeeding or just after feeding of the fish and there are excess feed in the pond because there is an increase in demand of oxygen to digest the feed.Overcrowding in the pond due to overstocking also depletes the oxygen concentration. The fish show signs when the water parameters are altered or when there is a compromise due to pathogenic agent.The fish crowd near the water surface gasping for air,they reject feed,they dont respond to noise and their sputum remains undissolved on water surface. The water in the pond should be changed and replaced with fresh water,stop feeding at this period and stop fertilization of the pond.The oxygen level is corrected by aerating the pond using air pumps/aerators to increase oxygen level. Ammonia level( 0.05mg/litre) is also another important health indicator.The feed components are the key factors,when feed content are not properly metabolized,they give off high levels of ammonia in waste material,leading to contamination of pond due to accumulation of waste at the bottom of the pond.The pond could also have high levels of ammonia,if there is a contamination of ponds by sewage waste due to a leak from sewage pipes. The fish responds by reducing feed intake and also come to the surface for air.The ammonia level can be corrected by using more easily metabolized feed ;this can be achieved by using atovi premix in fish feed.This ensures proper metabolism of feed without any ammonia buildup,thus maintaining the regular level of ammonia.The atovi premix acts on the feed,fish and water in the pond(read more about atovi and fish in previous posts).In ponds where atovi feed is not used,the pond level must be reduced,it must be flushed and clean water is added to oxygenate pond. Foul smelling /odor in the pond this is usually as a result of feeding uncooked offal's to the fish,this is a major cause of pollution in fish pond. The uncooked offal s usually crowd/clog the water surface,depleting oxygen concentration ,giving off foul odor with resultant death of fish. The effect is reversed by removing left over offal s on water surface,flush pond and fill pond with fresh clean water.The use of uncooked offal's should be stopped and use compounded ration instead. Fish health is hinged on good water parameters,feed quality,quantity and frequency of feeding,hence much attention must be given to these factors.Observation and good management protocol are the keys for a successful fish farming venture.

The role of water in fish farming.

Water is the natural habitat of fish thus for successful farming venture,the quality must be monitored and controlled.The growth of any fish depends on the water parameters,feeding protocol,feed composition and genetic potential of the fish specie. The sources of water for the fish farming could be any of the following; wells,dams,boreholes ,sea/lagoon and streams.The system of farming intended will dictate the source of water to be used.The earthen pond usually get water from streams,sea/lagoon and channeled springs while the concrete ponds are filled either from wells,boreholes or dams.The most important factor to consider is the quality of the water source. Water for fish farming must possess the following qualities; 1) The PH must be between 7-9,not acidic or too alkaline. 2)The water must be clean and free from contaminants/pollutants such as oil,chemicals,paints or heavy metals. 3)It must be odorless,free from scumb or foam. 4)It must contain enough dissolved oxygen 4mg/litre. 5)It must have a temperature of between 25-32 degree . 6) The carbon dioxide must not be less than 5mg/litre. 7)Ammonia level 0.05mg/litre. 8)Nitrate not less than 50mg/litre. 9)Nitrite not less than 0.30mg/litre. Water quality should be checked at regular intervals using a water kit and necessary adjustment made,a change in any of the water parameters leads to stress in the fish which could lead to severe loses. Oxygen a major index of water quality needs regular monitoring and balancing.The reduced and increased levels of oxygen has a bad effect on the fish.When oxygen level is depleted in the pond,it leads to suffocation and death of the fish,while supersaturation leads togas bubble disease in fish.The supersaturation usually occurs in algae bloom,where there is rapid photosynthesis resulting in small bubbles accumulating in fish intestines,muscles and gills causing the fish to float. The management practices also hamper on the health of the fish,so these must also be taken into consideration in fish farming.


Fingerling production in cat fish farming is an essential part of the farm operation because it is the seed needed for production.The Clarias gariepinus spp is the common cat fish reared in Nigeria because of its early maturity taste,and the fact that it has an accessory breathing organ hence can survive outside water for some hrs,this explains why its sold live in the open markets. The mature male and female brood stock are chosen and kept in separate tubs,one male can fertilize 10 females.The males are bigger and heavier than the females,weighing over 1kg is the ideal .The males must have well developed genitals that are reddish indicating maturity. The females to be used must be identified as good spawners,with a weight of 450-500g,and must be over 8months with dark golden green eggs. The females are usually injected with hormones,the eggs expressed and mixed with milt of the male catfish.The male catfish is killed to extract the milt while the female is returned to pond after eggs are expressed. There are various hormones used in stimulating ovulation in fish such as ova prim, human chorionic gonadotropin, crushed pituitary gland and a combination of motilium and suprefact. The materials needed for the spawning include; a glass trough or a bath tub with water inlet and outlet pipes, screen with stand, pumps,bowls and net covering to keep tank covered and dark.The method you intend to use will dictate materials you will put in place. METHOD; The female brood fish to be used are injected with hormone,and left for 10 hours in a tank with flowing water,after which the eggs are stripped and placed in a bowl and fertilized with sperm from milt sac.The testis are cut in quarters,placed in a cloth and squeezed ,so that the sperm is caught on the bowl of eggs and the mixture is gently stirred.The fertilized eggs are placed on the screen in the bath tub and hatching occurs in 24-30 hours. The eggs can also be spawned in bowls with air pumps,this continuous movement of the water facilitates rapid hatching of the eggs .The eggs start hatching after 24 hours,you observe the hatchlings swimming in the bowl,allow 12 more hours for other eggs to hatch,after which you discard the unhatched eggs. The hatchlings are transferred to nursery tank,but are not fed until the 3rd day when there is complete absorption of yolksac. The fry's are fed with artemia ,and growth is observed and monitored.The fry's are sorted every week until they are a month old,then select the fingerlings for sale or continue rearing and sell as juveniles.

Tuesday, June 9, 2015


This refers to pocketing or ballooning of the pinna, with blood from damaged blood vessels in the ear. Aural haematoma can be caused by direct damage to vessels in the ear.The damage could be as a result of bite wound,accidents,but the most common cause is severe head shaking and scratching which is associated with heavy tick infestation. Otitis media and allergic dermatitis are underlying causes of aural haematoma,hence thorough examination is essential in treatment protocol. Treatment of haematoma can be surgical or non surgical intervention. Haematomas can resolve on their own but the ear will assume a cauliflower shape,hence disfiguring the shape and size of ear. Non surgical intervention involves draining the fluid and flushing the cavity with saline to remove any clot or fibrin. The draining will be done a number of times because the haematoma recurs.There is a tendency for secondary bacteria infection because of several needle pokes,hence complicating the case of haematoma. The surgical intervention involves lancing the haematoma,flushing the cavity with saline,then some sutures are placed on the pinna.The sutures are to hold the wall to the cartilage beneath,to ensure there is no space for pooling of blood.The incision site is not sutured,rather the sutures placed on both sides of pinna provide the necessary closure. The sutures are removed after a week, and the animal is placed on antilnflammtory drugs,analgesic and incision site is sprayed with wound oil treatment to repel flies. The ear could be wrapped up in bandage or a head collar is placed on the animal to prevent cutting off the stitches.

Thursday, June 4, 2015

Vet and food safety

Tuberculosis a deadly zoonotic disease, and the rise in human cases has been linked to consumption of animal byproducts and flesh of animals with tuberculosis. This is one of the reasons why you must purchase your beef and animal by products from certified slaughter slabs and abattoir. The picture shows tubercles in lymph node,rib cage, and liver, The entire carcass was condemned and destroyed. Do not purchase beef that is tainted, smelly or discolored. Buy your animal products and byproducts from certified slabs and abattoir. Food safety and hygiene is our collective responsibility,do your part.


Wednesday, June 3, 2015


The fish tank/pond is a summation of all activities carried out in the farm. The health status of the fish depends largely on management,this will determine the success of the venture.The prevention of fish diseases is achieved by implementing methods to prevent stress on the farm these include regular feeding with good quality feed,at specific feeding points at specific times. Fish should be given good quality feed at specific points at specified times to ensure proper observation this protocol ensures pond management as observation will dictate course of action. Predisposing conditions to fish diseases can easily be observed and prevented,these include poor water quality,overstocking and poor feed quality. The presence of dead fish or dying fish in the pond indicate a stress condition which can be attributed to pathogenic agents,bad feed,poor oxygen concentration e.t.c. HOW TO IDENTIFY SICK FISH; 1) the fish stops feeding. 2)the movement is sluggish,swimming by the side of tank. 3) skin discoloration. 4)lesion such as sores,pus ,white nodules on the skin. 5) fins rotten or frailed off. 6)gills are pale,hairy,white and covered with mucus. When you observe any of the above do the following; 1) isolate fish. 2)test the water parameter with a test kit. 3) check the fish thoroughly. 4)submit fish for laboratory diagnosis. 5)match the result with water analysis . 6) institute treatment based on result. The isolation of sick fish in treatment tank is to prevent spread/contamination of other stock,but ideally when you identify any sick fish you isolate them but ensure you drain the pond and replace with fresh water.This will ensure you flush out the causative agent and also alter the water parameter. It is very essential to treat all the fish in pond although those isolated will be treated separately and will only be returned to pond when health status is certified . Fish health management is a key to success of the venture, using Atovi feed premix is an advantage. It enhances the immune system of the fish keeping diseases away, the fish grows faster resulting in early harvest and fish are of big sizes fetching more profit. The premix ensures proper absorption of feed,so there is no wastage reducing the amount of feces hence pond is clean without undigested feed in pond. The use of atovi premix ensures a balance in water parameters as there are no nitrogenous deposits preventing nitrite toxicity which causes brown blood disease.It also prevents high ammonia deposit in pond because of complete metabolism of feed. FOR HIGHER FISH YIELD ;USE ATOVI PREMIX.

Common fish diseases and treatment.

Fish health management refers to practices that ensures optimum growth and development.The health status of fish is hinged largely on procedural technique;these include stocking density,water quality,oxygen tension, rate of dissolved gases turbidity and feed.The proper implementation of these technique ensures that the fish are disease-free. Diseases affecting fish are classified as bacterial,viral and fungal; these will only proliferate when environmental conditions of the pond are altered thereby making the fish susceptible to infection. Bacteria enteritis is a bacterial infection caused by Aeromonas punctata , where the fish stops feeding,the intestines are distended,the body is darkened ,the gills are rotten and anal region is swollen.The condition results in high mortality,the treatment is use of antibiotics in feed or soak affected fish in antibiotic laced water.There is also a herbal remedy ; fresh garlic are crushed and added to feed at a rate of 5 g of garlic to 10 kg of feed for 3 days. Bacterial gill rot caused by flexibacter columnaris; affects the gills turns them black because of large deposit of mucus on the gills,thus making it putrid.The operculum is inflamed ,gills ulcerate and drop off.This is also treated by adding antibiotics to feed,also table salt at 2% concentration in 20litres of water can be used in the treatment tank,where the fish are immersed for 10-15 mins. The cotton white disease or "water mold" caused by saprolegria spp,affects the gill filaments making them hairy and white.The treatment involves immersing fish in a solution of common salt and sodium bicarbonate. White head and mouth disease caused by pseudomonas dermoalla, the fish loses the natural color and attains a milky color from head to tail.This condition is also caused by myxococus piscicala. Furunculosis refers to the condition where the fish skin and muscle are inflammed,distended with pus,the fins are damaged and are eroded. The sudden death syndrome usually caused by branchiomycosis sanguinis; the gills are pale,with heavy mucus deposit on gills ,spores are also noted on gills suffocating the fish because of insufficient oxygen.This disease is largely associated with poor water quality with high deposit of inorganic matter. The treatment of bacterial infection in fish requires use of antibiotics in feed or water but most importantly,the pond must be flushed .Water must be added to pond and it should be properly aerated before treatment commences. Fish diseases can be prevented with sound management practices and inclusion of atovi feed premix to fish feed.