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Showing posts with label water. Show all posts
Showing posts with label water. Show all posts

Thursday, April 14, 2016


Horses are inheritably couch potatoes ,and an overeating, slothful horse leads to an obese horse. However, horse owners often don't see the dangers of an obese horse unlike in man. Caretakers may see no harm in giving their horses rich foods, but obesity in horses is just as unhealthy as obesity in humans and can lead to fatal diseases. Philip Johnson, professor of veterinary medicine and surgery at the University of Missouri-Columbia ,says Some of the very same problems humans encounter with obesity may also occur in horses.There is a striking parallelism between humans and horses when it comes to obesity. Obesity in horses not only causes weight gain but also endocrine problems, including insulin resistance. The equine obesity risks have been less studied, but researchers believe horses have similar risks as humans, such as heart disease and diabetes. Obesity in horses also can cause laminitis, a painful condition that often affects the front hooves. The weight of the bone is suspended in the hoof with connecting tissue forming a structure similar to a swing on a swing set. The extra weight in obese horses forces the connective tissue to tear and the bone breaks through the nail-like texture of the hooves. Veterinarians have yet to find an effective treatment for the condition. In the worst cases of laminitis, veterinarians are forced to euthanize the horse. Horses that develop insulin resistance are at an increased risk for laminitis. Horse owners often want their horses to look well fed.while some horse owners may view a healthy weight on their horse as too thin and try to feed them more. Its a know fact that not only do owners often over feed their horses, but what is fed to horses is genetically altered grass meant for food animals. The genetically designed grass fed to horses was designed to fatten food animals quicker.The genetics of horses, like many species, allows for the extra storing of fat in preparation for winter, when there is typically less food available. In nature, horses would eat less in the winter and lose the weight by spring. Under human care, horses are fed generously year round and never lose the extra weight. Horses need to be exercised daily in meaningful ways and owners should push their horses for a more strenuous exercise. It's not enough to ride your horse twice a week for 20 minutes. A well formulated diet coupled with exercise is key to a healthy horse.

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Pet owners spend £200 for team of vets to remove tumor from eye of gold fish.

A team of vets was required to carry out the surgery on beloved fish Monty; the procedure lasted for 45 minutes. Five-year-old Monty had the life saving surgery to remove multiple tumors from his left eye. The cancerous cells had unfortunately spread throughout his back, making the already critical surgery all the more necessary.The joint team of specialist vets from High croft Veterinary Group Bristol Zoo carried out the delicate procedure using a water soluble anesthetic. Monty was able to survive so long above water because oxygenated water was flushed through his gills and eye.The family goldfish, who lost an eye to the surgery, is now back at home in Bristol where he is recovering swimmingly. source;dailymail online

Thursday, March 31, 2016


Water is very essential in the poultry value chain,as its the major medium used for feeding, vaccination and cleaning. Water has also been noted as a source of infection and disease transmission,hence water safety must be part of bio security protocol for poultry health. Broiler growers move further away from using antibiotics, the importance of keeping a clean water system will continue to increase; Dr. Susan Watkins, a professor and extension specialist at the University of Arkansas, said keeping a clean water supply is a major contributor to having a healthy, successful flock. Watkins, who has been studying and speaking on the importance of clean water for years, explained how growers can keep their water supply clean at the Midwest Poultry Federation Convention in St. Paul, Minnesota, on March 16. Watkins said the keys to keeping a clean water supply are: 1)knowing the water supply’s challenges and addressing them properly, an inadequate cleaning is a waste of time and effort 2) Using downtime effectively and using that time to clean water systems 3) Using a daily water sanitizer best suited for the operation that is compatible with water, easy to use, ease to monitor and cost effective for the farm. 4) Establishing a program to monitor and verify water quality. Watkins offered up a few promising methods and new products as well as tips on how best to use them to help farmers decide which water cleaning program is best for their farm: A) Chlorine for water sanitation Watkins said chlorine is a good daily water sanitizer, but it is not perfect. The halogen is available in a variety of forms and is an effective water sanitizer, however its effectiveness is affected by numerous factors such as the pH level of the water, the temperature of the water, the cleanliness of the water, the amount of time the chlorine is present in the water, and the age and storage condition of the chlorine product. While it’s an effective antimicrobial, it does not remove all harmful microbes in the water supply. She said chlorine solutions work best in pH 4 to 7. The acidic form of chlorine, which exists in lower pH water, is a better sanitizer overall. As chlorine reacts with organic compounds in the water system, it can give off strong odors of chlorine. Watkins said the smell goes away as the chlorine sanitizes the water. Chlorine is not the best choice for areas where chloride levels are already high. B) Alternatives to chlorine Watkins said there are a few options other than using chlorine to sanitize water: hydrogen peroxide and a newer product that uses ultraviolet light. Hydrogen peroxide can be a good alternative to chlorine and works especially well for sanitizing pond or river water. Like chlorine, hydrogen peroxide can be dangerous to store, and its effectiveness declines over time. Watkins said a newer product, the Silver Bullet, from Colorado-based Silver Bullet Water Treatment L.L.C., is promising. She said the product uses ultraviolet light and continuously infuses electrolyzed air into the water supply -- what the company calls an advanced oxidation process to leave a small amount of hydrogen peroxide in the water.“I love this concept because you can just continuously treat water and not over treat it,” Watkins said. Watkins said environmental factors like mold can reduce the effectiveness of the Silver Bullet – and other sanitizers – and because the product does not leave behind a residual amount of an active compound, the only way to gauge its success is microbial monitoring before and after use. She recommended using the diffuser in a holding tank or wellhead rather than with flowing water. Cleaning considerations are important to achieve aim of sanitized water,these tips are important and helpful:1) Use the right concentration of a cleaner and give it the proper amount of time to work. Improper cleaner concentration or not giving it enough time to work will result in failure. 2) The entire system must be cleaned: the water lines, standpipes, regulators and distribution pipes. If any part of the system is not cleaned of biofilm and other residue, it can undermine all the time and effort spent on cleaning and lead to health problems in a broiler flock. 3) Document which products work best for your operation. Watkins said no two farms are the same, so it is necessary to figure out which products work best and record it for future reference. Swabs of microbial content collected before and after cleaning can help determine which products work best. No matter how well the system was flushed clean: flush it with a sanitizer birds can drink after cleaning. Stabilized products work best because they keep working for days after application. The secondary treatment can kill microbes that survived the line cleaning. Excerpts from

Monday, March 14, 2016


Antibiotic resistance is a global issue with developing countries being mostly affected .The research as to ways to combat the super bug effect has looked into techniques of animal production with the view that if antibiotic use is reduced in farm animals then there will not be any residues in the products thus eliciting development of antibiotic strains in man resulting in difficulty in treatment of simple conditions such as diarrhoea. The reduction and absolute banning of antibiotics in farmed animals has shown dramatic changes in the antibiotic residues,but the identification of some antibiotic resistance strains that was not used even during production,has beam the search on another possible route of transmission. The environment is the mixing media where various pathogens interact, pathogens from man,animals are exchanged freely .Antibiotics released into the environment may be spread through plants which later are consumed by humans, or by livestock. The consequence is that relatively harmless diseases such as diarrhea caused by resistant coli bacteria or salmonella bacteria become dangerous or even lethal. Drugs discharged into the environment are a problem in many parts of the world and antibiotics are spread in nature through urine from animals and humans, and many unfortunately have a very long life span. The problem is very pronounced in many African countries because of poor sanitation conditions . The quality of drugs available to man and animals also play a role in development of resistance,many countries with poor drug regulations where concentrations of active ingredients are not accurate,or the active ingredient is not even in the preparation( fake drugs). This results in repeated treatment where the bacteria is not destroyed but becomes resistant to the drug.The environment is the mixing vat,and unless proper disposal of drugs,feces are incorporated into sanitation laws the problem will persist. Twitter

Friday, February 5, 2016


A study by the University of Birmingham indicates that,If you drink two glasses of water before one or two meals a day, can it help you to lose weight faster?.This saves a lot of money on diet drugs,diet foods and weight loss programmes. The research selected 80 obese adults in their fifties for a three month study. The method used was to give all participants advice on how they might lose weight and how to go about it using diet and exercise. Then, half the group were asked to load up by drinking about a pint or two glasses of water before one or two meals a day. They were also checked to see if they were really doing so by regularly measuring their urine output! The other half group were just told to imagine they were full before they sat down to eat. The results showed that both groups lost weight. But those who were drinking water before all meals had reduced their weight by 4.3kg (9.48 lbs) over the 12 weeks. They also lost 2.7 pounds more than the “full stomach thinkers”, who, interestingly enough were working out and exercising more than their water-drinking colleagues. The water drinkers were eating less which probably helped them a lot. More studies need to be done with larger and more diverse ethnic groups and ages for a broader picture. The conclusion off the research is that drinking a glass or 2 of water before your main meal helps you lose weight. Start the water challenge today.#Water for life project.


Studies suggest that consistently drinking water during each day stimulates a more dynamic metabolism, regardless of your diet. Consuming 16 ounces of water just after awaking in the mornings raises your metabolism by 24%, according to the Health Fitness Revolution. An increase in pounds is a concern if your body is retaining water before adjusting to the higher intake consumption. Even so, acting as an appetite suppressant, water comes to the rescue. You’ll soon begin to consume fewer calories, lose weight, and keep it off, because the water flushes out your system, cleansing your body and reducing your hunger. One glass of water an hour before bed is said to prevent a heart attack or stroke. It makes it easier for the heart to send freshly oxygenated blood to the organs. The American Journal of Epidemiology published a six-year study that found that people who drank more than five glasses of water a day were 41% less likely to die from a heart attack than those who drank less than two glasses a day. Water makes your heart healthy as it decreases the threat of a heart attack by preventing your blood from thickening, and by lowering your blood pressure. Sufficient water consumption neutralizes pH levels, strengthens your immunity against kidney stones and other illnesses, and aids pain management especially body aches and headaches. Water acts as a catalyst for the renewal of optimal body functions thus drinking adequate amounts of water supports the performance of your liver and kidneys. These organs eliminate toxic substances, waste, and salt from your blood. Drink up# water for life.

Wednesday, February 3, 2016


Avian influenza (AI) virus may survive in chicken feed thus treatment of feed is therefore of utmost importance. This was stated by independent poultry veterinarian Dr Haroldo Toro at the IPPE. Dr Toro, Professor with Auburn University's Department of Pathobiology, Alabama, USA, revealed results from the first phase of a research project exploring effects of feed treatment including a pathogen control agent* on AI. This control agent is a blend of formaldehyde, propionic acid, terpenes and surfactant. "We tested the viability of one strain of AI in feed after treatment with this agent. Under experimental conditions the product offered an extremely high level of AI virus inactivation (99.9%) within 1 hour," he explained. Migratory birds are widely accepted to be responsible for inter-continental and inter-state spread. The answer as to how individual farm biosecurity is being breached, though, is more complex. There are multiple mechanical vectors under the spotlight, with feed appearing on that list for two reasons. Firstly, migratory birds settle and shed on feed raw materials such as corn. Any protection normally offered by heat in the pelleting process is absent, as layers and turkeys are predominantly fed mash." Dr Lorenzoni believes the pattern of clustered local incidence following an initial outbreak could be linked to the virus's ability to survive in water sources, and the frequent transfer of passerines and vermin between water and stores of finished feed. "We know small birds and rodents are efficient mechanical vectors, and that they are attracted to water and feed, effectively building a bridge between migratory birds and farmed poultry. Our pathogen control agent has the potential to break that transmission route. While we're in the early stages of confirming its residual impact on AI, our experience with Salmonella suggests we can protect the feed against re-contamination for up to 21 days post pelleting." story source; world poultry.

Saturday, January 9, 2016

New NDV-H5NX avian influenza vaccine has potential for mass vaccination of poultry.

Researchers have developed and tested a new vaccine that protects chickens and other poultry from multiple strains of avian influenza found in the U.S., including H5N1, H5N2 and H5N8. A team of researchers at Kansas State University, in collaboration with Garcia-Sastre of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, has developed a vaccine that protects poultry from multiple strains of avian influenza found in the U.S., including H5N1, H5N2 and H5N8. The vaccine has the potential to be administered through water or into embryonated eggs, making it easier for poultry producers to vaccinate flocks.The vaccine, called NDV-H5Nx, protects chickens and likely other poultry against the three recently introduced U.S. avian influenza strains H5N1, H5N2 and H5N8, as well as against Newcastle disease virus -- a virus that naturally affects poultry. Avian influenza killed millions of chickens and turkeys in the U.S. in spring and summer 2015, leading to billions in lost revenue for the U.S. poultry industry. The NDV-H5Nx vaccine also has the potential to be administered to millions of birds at a time through water, said J├╝rgen Richt, Regents distinguished professor of veterinary medicine, director of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases at Kansas State University and one of the researchers involved in the discovery. "The vaccine we produced is a live vaccine, which means it replicates in birds," Richt said. "Because it's live, we believe that the vaccine could be sprayed into the air or put in the water supply so that when the chickens need a drink, they could be vaccinated. A poultry farm could vaccinate all of its birds in a single day because all living creatures need water to live." The vaccine also has potential to be administered to developing chicks in eggs, resulting in offspring being automatically vaccinated for the diseases, said Wenjun Ma, Kansas State University assistant professor of diagnostic medicine and patho biology and one of the researchers involved. The NDV-H5Nx vaccine has the ability to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals, or DIVA. This compatibility is critical for the U.S. poultry industry because it provides evidence to trade partners that poultry have been vaccinated and is free of H5, Richt said. H5 vaccines currently on the market require that each chicken be injected by hand. Many poultry operations have millions of birds and it would take many hours to vaccinate every chicken, Richt said.This is a major advantage as many birds can be vaccinated per time. Story source; science daily.

Wednesday, December 16, 2015

Early life factors important for broilers .

Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life.The current study, done by researchers from the Adaptation Physiology Group at Wageningen University, addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge.The researchers conclude that the results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry. Broilers are better protected against a non-infectious lung challenge when the feed, water and housing was optimum during the early life of the animals. read more about research in journal of poultry science.

Thursday, November 26, 2015


This refers to a condition where peristalsis is altered because of an enlarged esophagus.The esophagus is the passage of food from mouth to stomach,thus when its enlarged the food passage is stalled leaving food in the throat for a prolonged time,the food is usually regurgitated or inhaled in lungs resulting in aspiration pneumonia The food often times decays in the throat resulting in foci of infection. The condition is common in horses,cats,dogs and humans,and it could be inherited as in the Friesian horse. The common signs associated with mega-esophagus are 1) inappetence 2) frequent episodes of regurgitation 3) severe weight loss. There are certain breeds predisposed to mega-esophagus, these include 1) great Dane,2) German shepherd 3)golden retriever 4)corgis,5) Siamese cat 6)Persian cat 7)Boston terrier 8)rottweiler 9)french bulldog e.t.c. The prognosis of the condition is guarded and the remedy is feeding the subject in a raised position; where the neck is stretched vertically to receive food and create an easy passage to the stomach. Dogs are usually fed in special chairs,to ensure they have required calories and prevent food stasis. photo credit; The telegraph.

Friday, November 20, 2015


Snails are easy to manage and are a good source of protein. The iron content makes it a good supplement for anemic patients.The snails are hardy and not easily predisposed to diseases except when management procedures are wrong. The signs of diseases are 1)inappetence 2) inactivity 3) dryness of the fleshy part 4) nodules on the surface. The predisposing factors are 1) high temperature in the snailery,temperature higher than 35degrees is detrimental to growth and health. 2)overstocking of snails, and stocking different ages together. 3)excessive amount of sunlight in snailery. 4)dryness of the snailery. 5)feeding moldy feed. 6)feeding contaminated feed, feed of low quality. 7) indiscriminate use of chemicals ,detergents and insecticides around snailery. 8) giving dirty water, or contaminated water. The best form of prevention is to ensure strict bio security protocol and provide better environmental conditions.

Monday, November 16, 2015


Colic refers to disturbances in the gastrointestinal track,it could be a mild discomfort to extreme abdominal pain.A mild case can resolve on its own,severe cases require surgery and extreme cases results in death. The common cases are usually associated with 1) changes in exercise routine. 2) changes in stabling routine 3) changes in feed,feeding portions and feeding times. 4)worm load and 5) teeth problems. The common symptoms are 1)restlessness .(frequent getting up and down) 2)flank watching(turning to look at abdomen frequently). 3)Frequent unsuccessful attempts to urinate. 4)fever. 5)high pulse rate. 6)pawing.(scrapping the ground). Colic cannot be prevented in all cases but certain procedures can be implemented to prevent occurrence; 1)Feeding protocol, give a little portion of feed at meal times,do not overfeed and dont allow access to excess water after exercise.When feed is to be changed,introduce new feed gradually and give cool fresh water. 2) Health protocol regular vet checks.2)follow a routine worming program. 3)clean paddock regularly to remove feces,this will reduce contamination of pasture with fecal eggs. 3)keep teeth rasped. Horses are use to routine so do not change routine suddenly. The changes to exercise routine should be gradual and also reduce stress on the horses.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015


Interesting??? read how new study uncovered how diamonds and oil are formed by various interactions under pressure with rock and water.

Tuesday, November 10, 2015


Horses health status can be analyzed from behavior,temperament, poop nature,nature of coat,posture and color of mucous membrane.The horse health can be evaluated based on constituency and appearance.Horses should give about 8-10 of manure daily,these should be well formed but the fecal balls should break easily. Signs of ill health deduced from poop; 1) if the fecal balls are dry,hard and solid that does not break easily; the horse is constipated and should be provided with more water. Dry fecal balls with traces of blood also suggests constipation. 2)when mucus is not in the poop ,its an indication of irritation in the gut such as bacterial infection. 3)poop with pieces of straw,hay or grain indicate the horse is not chewing.The feed passes through the body fast,this indicates a dental issue. 4) when eggs are discovered in feces, a worming exercise is indicated. 5)when poop is very loose,the feed has high grain content or the horse feed has too much salt; this will result in watery diarrhoea. Twitter

Friday, November 6, 2015

Wednesday, November 4, 2015


Bio security measures are simple but effective protocols that must be practices to keep infectious agents out of farm facility and also to control spread of diseases in cases of outbreaks. These protocols are simple and easy to comply with, each facility will need a programme tailored to their needs/function.The bio security measures can only be effective if the horses have been vaccination and given other required medication. Bio security can be discussed broadly on these levels,which are further sub divided to mini levels. Bio security is based on 1) isolation. 2) clean,wash and disinfection .3) waste disposal. Isolation basically deals with restriction of visitors to stalls, keep your horses away from strange horses, make your barns/stables rodent proof e.t.c Cleaning,washing and disinfection of tools,implements, stalls,walls, carriages,floors e.t.c.The proper disposal of waste is vital to the success of any bio security protocol. Horses need care everyday so dont wait until there is an incidence, because it will be too late. check out more

Tuesday, November 3, 2015


Watering animals can be a nightmare,if your animals are picky drinkers.The health risk attached to animals staying off water is life threatening,hence everything possible must be done to ensure the animals take enough water. Horses that refuse water are another ball game altogether,hence the water source must be verified to ascertain the problem. Horses have different preference when it comes to water, it has been discovered that horses prefer non acidic water. Is your horse a picky drinker? test your source and make necessary adjustment. A study carried out with some horses will give an insight into horses taste preference;


Water is an integral part of horse nutrition.The feed requirement of horses must be backed by adequate water,which must be clean,fresh and readily available. Horses,like other animals need water to facilitate digestion,but if water quality is poor disease conditions are inevitable.The quality and quantity of water are important; see how water plays a role in horses health;

Thursday, October 29, 2015


New methods to cut losses in poultry value chain due to coccidiosis has been unveiled.The new management entails