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Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Dog to human transmission of plague.

Plague is a serious and fatal bacterial infection caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Humans can contract the disease from the bite of an infected flea. Rodents, including rats, often carry both the plague and the fleas that spread it. The most common type of plague seen throughout history is the bubonic plague, which is an infection of the lymph nodes, others are pneumonic plague, an infection of the lungs, and septicemic, which affects the blood. The incubation period is typically 2 to 8 days but the pneumonic plague symptoms can appear as soon as 1 day following infection.The symptoms of bubonic plague are 1)chills. 2)fever 3)seizures 4)muscular pain 5)enlarged lymph nodes especially in armpit,neck and groin area. The swelling of the site is called bubo and its found at site of flea bite. All forms of the plague require immediate treatment, as death can occur as soon as 24 hours after the first symptoms appear.Antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, doxycycline or ciprofloxacin are effective in treating the plague. The Symptoms of pneumonic plague are 1) severe cough. 2)fever. 3)difficulty in breathing 4)froth and bloody sputum 5)chest pain. All cases of pneumonic plague are fatal if left untreated and unlike other types of plague, individuals with pneumonic plague can spread the infection person-to-person through coughing, which sends tiny droplets carrying the bacteria airborne. A case of transmission of pneumonic plague from dog to owner and other 3 people was reported in morbidity and mortality weekly report (MMWR).Yersinia pestis was identified in a blood sample collected from a previously healthy, middle-aged man who was hospitalized with pneumonia, the patient was later diagnosed with pneumonic plague. The dog was tested posthumously by both PRC assay and culture with results positive for Y. pestis, two veterinary clinic employees who had contact with the sick dog, along with a woman who had contact with both the dog and its owner while they were ill, all subsequently developed illness and tested positive for Y. pestis or Y. pestis antibodies.Before developing symptoms,the woman had contact with the dog for 9 to 10 days and with its owner for 5 to 6 days. Two of the infected humans had been taking antibiotics for their symptoms before their illness was diagnosed and subsequently avoided hospitalization, all four of the infected humans recovered from the disease. Prompt diagnosis and onset of treatment gives a good prognosis.