Search This Blog

Showing posts with label vaccination. Show all posts
Showing posts with label vaccination. Show all posts

Sunday, July 8, 2018

Vaccination increases family wealth, girls' education.

Vaccination increases family wealth, girls' education.A Washington State University-led research team found households in rural Africa that vaccinate their cattle for East Coast fever increased their income and spent the additional money on food and education. Researchers also found that when fewer cattle died from the fever, girls were more likely to attend secondary school. "When households vaccinate, it increases their wealth and income and sets them on a trajectory to provide education for their children," said lead author Tom Marsh, professor in WSU's School of Economic Sciences and the Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health. "Vaccinating is a way for households to pull themselves out of poverty.

Saturday, December 9, 2017

Wildlife at risk around the globe because of threat of canine distemper.

Wildlife at risk around the globe because of threat of canine distemper and scientists say vaccinating endangered carnivores of increasing importance.Experts from around the world focused on the threat that canine distemper virus poses to the conservation of increasingly fragmented populations of threatened carnivores. The canine distemper has been known for many years as a problem affecting domestic dogs, the virus has been appearing in new areas and causing disease and mortality in a wide range of wildlife species, including tigers and lions. In fact, many experts agree that the virus should not be called “canine distemper” virus at all, given the diversity of species it infects. The previous attempts to manage the risk of infectious disease to wild carnivore conservation have mostly focused on vaccination of domestic dogs. While this approach benefits the dogs themselves (and in the case of rabies, can be crucial to protecting local people), it often fails to prevent infections in threatened species that share their environment. This seems to be due to the presence of abundant, small-bodied wild carnivores that act as an alternative reservoir of infection. Wildlife at risk around the globe because of threat of canine distemper.

Friday, November 24, 2017

The new canine rabies research: One vaccine to save them all.

The new canine rabies research: One vaccine to save them all.A new study finds that rabies vaccines may have a protective effect beyond just the dreaded deadly virus in dogs. Canine rabies is common in many parts of the world. In Asia and Africa, rabies from dog bites kills more than 50,000 people each year. Large international efforts are dedicated to this public health crisis, including mass rabies vaccination of dogs. A recent publication suggests the canine rabies vaccine may have additional benefits to dog health beyond protection from rabies. That’s right—vaccinate for rabies, get rabies protection PLUS additional dog health benefits.
The study followed 2,500 households in South Africa over four years and found that dogs vaccinated for rabies had a reduced risk of canine death from any cause as compared to dogs not vaccinated for rabies. The greatest reduction was noted in very young dogs with a 56% reduced risk of death. This decrease in canine mortality was not explained by a reduction in deaths due to rabies alone. The researchers proposed that rabies vaccination boosted the immune system and may have provided enhanced defense against other diseases unrelated to rabies. Previous studies have similarly identified this nonspecific protective effect by rabies vaccination in children and animals, providing further support for the research team’s current findings.

Saturday, October 1, 2016

World rabies day in Lagos.

The world rabies day celebrated on the 28/September every year, this year's celebration was marked with public lectures, free vaccination exercises and awareness campaign around the state. The event this year was different because of the collaboration with medical officers from hospitals and primary health centers ,school children and youth corp members. The participation of various local government officials,environmental health workers and various local council development areas,emphasized the importance of awareness campaign from bottom up. The day marked with lectures by some veterinarians and medical officers and free vaccination is shown in pics below;

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Parvo virus outbreak.

20 dogs have been put down in San Juan County because of a serious outbreak of the highly contagious virus. Some puppies from the Farmington Regional Animal Shelter contracted canine parvovirus after they were adopted and others at the shelter tested positive for the virus. The shelter made the decision to end all puppy adoptions for the next 14 days so as to quarantine the puppies and make sure they aren't sick,” said Stacie Voss, Director of the FRAS. The parvovirus is dangerous to puppies and tough to get rid of, but there is one way you can protect your pets. “The best thing you can do is vaccinate your puppies to keep them safe and not allow them to interact with unvaccinated dogs until they are fully vaccinated,” she said. Puppies at FRAS are being watched for signs of the virus. In the meantime, the shelter is receiving between 30 and 40 animals a day and already has more than 300 housed. FRAS is having an adoption sale. All adult animals aged 6 months and up will have an adoption fee of only $25. Kittens under 6 months of age will have an adoption fee of $50 and are two for the price of one. Adoption fees includes spay or neuter surgery, microchiping, at least one set of vaccinations (excluding rabies), and a 30-day trial of pet insurance. Vaccination is the only way to protect the dogs from this infection,puppies should be handled properly to prevent infection. Contributed by KOB 4 EYE WITNESS NEWS.

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

COMMON REASONS FOR VACCINATION FAILURE.

The success of the venture depends on following strict health protocols that are wrapped around simple but effective bio security strategy. The health protocol involves vaccinations coupled with medications when needed. Vaccination refers to a method of disease prevention in healthy animals by challenging the animal with an attenuated/killed agent of a disease so as to elicit the production of antibodies. When vaccinations are done properly and immunity conferred,the animal is said to have been immunized against such causative agents of disease.Vaccination though stimulates antibodies production to protect the animals ,but if not done properly ;the desired immunity will not be conferred.When immunity is not conferred,2 major causes are fingered.These are vaccine failure or vaccine break. When immunity is not conferred due to vaccine break,the following are causes; 1)when the cold chain is broken; usually from point of sale to area you need them.The vaccines are to be transported in coolers with enough ice packs for the trip.The potency of the vaccines cant be guaranteed when this occurs,and when used the required immunity is not conferred. 2) when using inappropriate dilution and concentration; this nullifies any effect the vaccine should have on the birds. 3)when expired vaccines are used,definitely no immunity can be conferred. While vaccine failure could occur in any of the following scenarios;1)using inappropriate dose; under/overdosing will not elicit any antibody reaction. 2)wrong dilution/route. 3)vaccination of sick birds. 4)stress on birds during handling especially in hot weather. 5)Use of chemicals along side the vaccines especially water purification solutions. 6)vaccinating birds when signs of diseases are visible in flock. Vaccinations though very essential, if not properly carried out will just be a waste of resources. When planning to vaccinate keep it simple,follow these guidelines; 1)place vaccine in ice pack. 2)engage qualified personnel. 3) use vaccine as directed by manufacturers.

Friday, April 8, 2016

NEWCASTLE DISEASE OUTBREAK

The National Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety Authority of Romania reported to the OIE on April 4 that the Newcastle disease situation in the country has been resolved. There was only one confirmed case in Romania, as a layer flock of 1,582 hens in Bucov, Prahova, Romania, was infected in November 2015. A total of 510 hens died, while the remaining 1,070 birds were destroyed. Movement control, zoning, screening and surveillance activities followed. The property was disinfected, animal products were destroyed and all carcasses, by-products and waste was properly disposed and source of infection was never determined. During the first two months of 2014, The Botswana Ministry of Agriculture notified the OIE of five cases of Newcastle disease, all of which occurred in the eastern half of the country. Three of those cases were in backyard poultry flocks. In total, 42,315 birds were susceptible, 3,966 were confirmed to have the disease, and 1,049 birds died. Contact with wild birds was believed to have been a cause for some of the infections. On March 30, the Ministry of Agriculture determined the Botswana Newcastle disease outbreak to be resolved, and notified the OIE on April 5. It has also been reported in Bulgaria, Bulgaria is just one of several countries that are dealing with Newcastle disease. The OIE states that, Israel has had seven outbreaks of the disease in recent months, affecting as many as 19,400 birds. The Philippines is also struggling with Newcastle disease, as the country’s Department of Agriculture is urging poultry owners to vaccinate their flocks amid the deaths of 41,000 birds. source;WattAgNet.com

Wednesday, March 16, 2016

man faces rabies risk after monkey bites in Bali .

A man who is getting rabies shots after a monkey bit him on the head in Bali has warned travellers against going near the creatures.Anthony Wallace, of East Gosford, was on a seven-day holiday with girlfriend Libby McManus when he was bitten at Ubud Monkey Forest. After the bite happened, Mr Wallace went to a first-aid centre at the monkey forest.A Balinese doctor cleaned the wounds with salty water and antiseptic and administered a tetanus shot. He said the monkeys get tested for rabies once a year by an Australian doctor and the monkeys don't have rabies, but it was up to me if I wanted a rabies shot," Mr Wallace said. Mr Wallace, 46, sought advice from a Central Coast doctor when he returned home. "The doctor told him "if you get rabies you will die". Medical records showed rabies was almost always fatal after neurological symptoms had appeared.However, vaccination could prevent the disease even after exposure.Mr Wallace decided to undergo treatment, which included an immunoglobulin injection into the bite wounds."I had four injections into my scalp," he said."The right side of my head was puffed up like a balloon." Additionally, Mr Wallace must have four shots of rabies vaccine over two weeks. Mr Wallace said the experience was "not something you'd like to see others go through".He and his girlfriend took precautions when visiting the monkeys, but had not realised the extent of the dangers they posed. They didn't take a backpack, sunglasses or hats to ensure the monkeys had nothing to grab."They had signs saying 'don't stare at or tease the monkeys'," Mr Wallace said. A lady was selling bunches of bananas to feed the monkeys, which they agreed to do."One of the big monkeys jumped on my shoulder – I thought that was pretty cool," he said."I gave the monkey the banana and it started to eat it." He didn't touch or provoke the monkey."Something dropped on my pants, I looked down and the monkey kind of freaked out." It dropped the banana, wrapped its arm around his eyes and took "a couple of big bites of my head", jumped off and ran away. Australia's smartraveller website strongly advised people to "avoid direct contact" with monkeys, dogs and other mammals in Indonesia because of rabies risk. BA World Health Organisation fact sheet said rabies infection "causes tens of thousands of deaths every year, mostly in Asia and Africa". Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral disease which occurs in more than 150 countries and territories. Dogs were the source of most human deaths from rabies. The disease was present "on all continents", except Antarctica. More than 15 million people a year receive a post-bite vaccination. Culled from Newcastle Herald.

PORCINE EPIDEMIC DIARRHOEA.

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea virus (PEDv) is devastating in herds especially in Asia and North America although the recent outbreaks of PEDv-like strains in Europe appear less destructive. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea (PED) is an economically important enteric disease in pigs caused by a Corona virus. Corona viruses can be divided into the genera Alpha corona virus, Beta corona virus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. The Alpha corona viruses including Transmissible Gastroenteritis virus (TGEv), Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus (PRCv) and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea virus (PEDv) are the most important in swine. While TGEv and PRCv belong to the Alpha corona virus 1 species, PEDv belongs to a separate species within the same genus. The Beta corona viruses induce severe diseases in humans like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-Cov) or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-Cov), the Beta corona virus affecting pigs called Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis virus (HEv) is of minor importance for the swine industry. The Delta corona virus infections (porcine Delta corona virus, PDCov) were reported in pigs in Asia and North America which caused enteric diseases similar to PEDv but of lower clinical impact and disease severity. PED first appeared as acute diarrhoea in finishing pigs in the early 1970s in the UK and subsequently spread fast across Europe causing acute outbreaks of diarrhoea in pigs of all age groups. The routes of PEDv transmission between different areas, countries and even continents remain poorly understood. The origin of recently identified PEDv strains in Europe showing high nucleotide similarity to US S-INDEL PEDv strains remains unclear. It is not known if those strains have been circulating in the European pig population for a long time or if they were recently introduced into Europe. The various methods to applied so far to control PED virus on farms, include the following 1) Increasing sow immunity can be achieved by giving feedback. This usually involves feeding intestines or diarrheic faces from acutely infected piglets to sows to convey immunity. Different protocols are followed; no additives should be added. 2) Weaning down is also a much applied strategy – this means weaning at about ten days of age. 3)Improving biosecurity. 4)Applying strict disinfection, e.g. using Synergize, Virkon S. 5)Vaccinating. There are two inactivated vaccines available. The best success is usually achieved in pre-infected herds.

Saturday, February 20, 2016

San Diego Zoo flamingos recently had annual physicals.

According to San Diego(CBS8) the zoo flamingos received their annual physicals.A group of nearly 100 Caribbean flamingos were corralled into a holding area near the Flamingo Lagoon Wednesday morning. From there, they each underwent a health exam, featuring a west Nile vaccination and physical inspection. The birds have been front and center at the zoo for more than 50 years.

Thursday, February 18, 2016

BIOTECH AND PRRSV RESISTANT PIGS.

A research involving scientists have bred Pigs resistant to a PRRSV, Using CRISPR ;(CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing method—to breed pigs resistant to infection). Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerged in the 1980s, and the syndrome now afflicts these hoofed animals worldwide, causing illness, death and miscarriage. It has been designated the most economically significant disease for swine, costing livestock producers in North America $600 million annually from deaths and medical treatments. Vaccinations have mostly failed to prevent the syndrome's spread, but a new approach by biologists at the University of Missouri may mark a turning point. They are one of the first teams to develop a commercial agricultural application for the revolutionary CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing method—to breed pigs resistant to infection. CRISPR/Cas9 is a gene-manipulation tool that allows scientists to make changes to DNA with razor-sharp accuracy. The tool has generated excitement in the research community because it allows rapid modification of gene function, replacing older and less efficient methods. For porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Missouri's Randall Prather, Kristen Whitworth and Kevin Wells turned to the technique to breed three piglets that lacked a protein on cells that acts as a doorway for the virus. The edited piglets were grouped together in a pen with seven normal piglets, and then they all were inoculated with PRRSV. About five days later the normal pigs grew feverish and ill, but the genetically edited pigs did not. Despite sharing close quarters with their sick pen mates, they remained in top health throughout the 35-day study period. Blood testing also revealed that the edited animals did not produce antibodies against the virus—further evidence that they evaded infection entirely. “I expected the pigs would get the virus but not get as sick,” Prather says. “But it is just night and day. The pigs are running around with the other pigs coughing on them, but they are just fine.” This work and other recent experiments demonstrate the promise of CRISPR/Cas9 for the care of domestic animals. Late last year geneticists at the University of California, Davis, employed the new technique to breed dairy cows that do not grow horns. The study is published in the Nature Biotechnology.

Tuesday, February 16, 2016

Guidance relaxes requirements for pets with lapsed rabies vaccine.

Cats and dogs with out-of-date vaccinations when exposed to rabies can receive a booster and be subject to an observation period, rather than quarantine or euthanasia, according to the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians in the 2016 edition of the Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control. The change follows a paper in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association that found that dogs whose vaccination status had lapsed demonstrated an adequate antibody response to support the change. Veterinarian Catherine Brown said the guidance does not mitigate the need to keep current on vaccination. Full Story: JAVMA News

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

RATS AND LEPTOSPIROSIS.

Leptospirosis a bacterial disease that affects humans and animals. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may be similar to other diseases and some infected persons, however, may have mild to severe symptoms. Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis,liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death. The risk of infection with Leptospirosis is high with people close to animals such as dogs, cattle, horses, and pigs. These animals get infected when they are exposed to urine of infected rats, or have contact with contaminated drinking water or swimming/paddling through water inhabited by rats or contaminated by rat’s urine. When these animals are infected, they may show no signs of the disease. Infected animals may continue to excrete the bacteria into the environment continuously or every once in a while for a few months up to several years. Humans can become infected through; 1) Contact with urine (or other body fluids, except saliva) from infected animals. 2) Contact with water, soil, or food contaminated with the urine of infected animals. 3) The bacteria can enter the body through skin or mucous membranes of eyes, nose and mouth, especially if the skin is broken from a cut or scratch. 4) Drinking contaminated water can also cause infection. Outbreaks of Leptospirosis are caused by exposure to contaminated water, such as floodwaters and person to person transmission is rare. Leptospirosis occurs worldwide, but is most common in temperate or tropical climates. It is an occupational hazard for many people who work outdoors or with animals, such as: Farmers, Mine workers, Sewer workers, Slaughterhouse workers,(abattoir),Veterinarians and animal handlers, Fish farmers, and Dairy farmers. The time between a person's exposure to a contaminated source and becoming sick is 2 days to 4 weeks. Illness usually begins abruptly with fever and other symptoms. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS; In humans, Leptospirosis can cause mild or severe signs this include; 1) High fever 2) Headache 3) Chills 4) Muscle aches. The Severe signs include; 1) Vomiting 2) Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes) 3) Red eyes 4) Abdominal pain 5) Diarrhea and 6)Rash.

Monday, December 21, 2015

DOG BREEDERS AND SALE OF SICK PUPPIES.

Julie Crumpler Peele faces five additional felony charges of obtaining property under false pretenses. These are in addition to the two charges she already faced last month after two different viewers who say Peele sold them sick puppies.When confronted Peele in October, she denied the puppies she sells are sick."It makes me very angry," Paige McKeithan said.McKeithan told me she met Peele in July, 2014 and bought a dog named Gunner from her."My mom was holding him and we felt that the stomach was really tight, and so my mom asked if the dog was sick, and she said no he just didn't like car rides. So I thought he was just sick from that," McKeithan added.But she said within 24 hours of buying him from Peele, Gunner had to be rushed to the vet. McKeithan said the vet suspected the parvo virus and also that Gunner had parasites and bacteria in his bloodstream. She spent over $2,000 in vet care for Gunner, and said the vet did everything she could to get Gunner healthy, but nothing was working. According to ( http://abc11.com/pets/woman-allegedly-selling-sick-puppies-facing-new-charges/1077899/)She had to put Gunner down, and now she has a message for Peele: "Just for her to stop doing this and for something to be done."

RABIES AND DOG IMPORTATION.

Dog breeders and pet lovers and owners have been warned continuously of dangers associated with dog importation.The breeders are supposed to ensure the dogs get the necessary vaccinations before they are sold and shipped off, but some mischievous breeders/puppy mill merchants dont vaccinate these pets thus exposing the pet lovers to a risk.The pets that are shipped branding certificates are often times discovered to be fake, thus strict documentation laws must be ensured and vaccination records verified to ensure safety. There has been cases of shipping off animals to other countries which were incubating various pathogens, a recent case is the rabid dog shipped to the US from Egypt (as reported by STAT http://www.statnews.com/2015/12/17/rabies-dog-cdc/) The rabid dog was transported into the country in May by an animal rescue organization. It was later discovered the dog’s rabies vaccination certificate was a fake, CDC officials said .It’s the fourth time — that officials know of — in the last 11 years that a rabid dog has been imported to the United States. Ten people who had substantial contact with the animal were advised to get post-exposure rabies treatment and eight more involved in its importation opted to get vaccinated as a precaution, CDC and state health department officials wrote in a report on the incident published in this week’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, a journal operated by the CDC.‘There’s no shortage of adoptable dogs in the US’ Dr. Nicky Cohen said the CDC issued guidelines last year to spell out what is needed, from a rabies control standpoint, to import companion animals to the United States. Chief among them: an authentic rabies vaccination certificate. It also pointed out some red flags to look for on rabies vaccination certificates to spot fakes — things like multiple dogs in a shipment having identical certificates or evidence that a dog’s name has been whited out. “It’s pretty basic,” Cohen admitted. “There have been four incidences where rabid dogs have been imported. But we do know that more dogs than just these four have been imported with falsified records. This was issued in response to the recognition of imported dogs with falsified vaccination records.”The dog from Egypt was part of a shipment of eight dogs and 27 cats. It was the only animal in the shipment that was infected.

Friday, December 18, 2015

MANAGING COCCIDIOSIS..

The critical control points for coccidiosis vaccination; effective way of preventing coccidiosis is vaccination at the hatchery. This only works out well if critical points are taken into account, both at the hatchery as well as in a later stage at the farm. Vaccination against coccidiosis in poultry is used mainly in broiler, turkey and layer breeder flocks; commercial layer flocks reared on the floor; antibiotic free broiler operations and some commercial turkey grower operations. Vaccinating with a coccidiosis vaccine in conventional broiler operations is increasing rapidly, mainly in a rotational programme with anticoccidials, aiming at restoring the sensitivity of the anticoccidials. Whatever the reason for vaccinating with a coccidiosis vaccine, attention to some critical factors will determine the level of success of establishing immunity against coccidiosis. The Eimeria parasites given during the vaccination, infects the intestinal cells and continues its life cycle inside the gut. Un sporulated oocysts are excreted after 5-7 days, time depending on the species; the oocysts then sporulate outside the bird, given suitable environmental conditions exists, and after re-ingestion of these sporulated oocysts, infection and another cycle starts. Immunity development is dependent on successful excretion of oocysts and then re-ingestion of these sporulated, shed oocysts. Depending on the species, 2-3 infection – excretion – re-ingestion – re-infection – excretion cycles are needed to acquire a protective immunity. The vaccination process and the subsequent development of immunity, irrespective of the application method, can thus be divided in two distinct areas:Vaccine application – ensuring uptake of the vaccine . Post vaccination management include ; ensuring suitable environmental conditions for sporulation exists and recycling of the sporulated oocysts takes place. The necessary procedures to actually check the vaccine uptake by the birds must be implemented. Adding a suitable dye to the vaccine makes this possible by randomly checking boxes/crates of chicks/poults and see if they actually did ingest the vaccine by counting the number of chicks/poults in the box/crate with a dye colored tongue . . Recycling of oocysts and monitoring Oocyst shedding can be measured by sending faecal samples to a lab that is capable of doing an Oocyst Per Gram (OPG) count. Faecal material (NOT bedding) is collected at specific intervals post vaccination: Chickens at days 7/14/21/28 post vaccination Turkeys at days 6/13/20/27 post vaccination. The first count should be positive. This is a very good indicator of the effectiveness of the vaccine application done in the hatchery as well as an indicator that the vaccine that was used was still infective. The second count should show a significant increase. This is used as an indicator that the shed oocysts sporulated and re-ingestion of these shed oocysts have taken place. Read more ;world poultry.

Thursday, December 17, 2015

STEPS TO ELIMINATE HUMAN RABIES!!!

Int'l groups launch new global framework to eliminate human rabies;The framework was a joint effort of the WHO, World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Global Alliance for the Control of Rabies (GARC).The effort is to adopt a plan of action that is expected to deliver prompt post-exposure prevention (PEP) for people in rabies endemic areas, as well as a framework for scaling up sustained, large-scale dog vaccination. Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories “Rabies is 100% preventable through vaccination and timely immunization after exposure, but access to post-bite treatment is expensive and is not affordable in many Asian and African countries,” said Dr. Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General. “Vaccinating 70% of dogs regularly in zones where rabies is present can reduce human cases to zero,” said OIE Director-General Dr. Bernard Vallat. Rabies is a human infection that is transmitted usually through the saliva of an infected animal (most of the time dogs), either through its bite, scratch, or licking of a human's open wounds.It is estimated that worldwide, one person dies from rabies every 10 minutes, based on data from the World Health Organization (WHO). Four out of 10 people bitten by suspected rabid dogs are children below 15. To stop deaths caused by the vaccine-preventable viral disease, the new framework calls for three key actions:Making human vaccines and antibodies affordable Ensuring people who get bitten receive prompt treatment and Mass dog vaccinations to tackle the disease at its source. Philippines among 10 worst rabies-affected countries In the Philippines, 200 to 300 Filipinos die of rabies infection every year, making it among the top 10 countries with the worst rabies problem.For its part, the Philippine government has a National Rabies Prevention and Control Program under the DOH, which aims to eliminate rabies by 2020. Story credit; CNN Philippines.

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

THE THREAT OF THE WEST NILE VIRUS.

The disease is prevalent in Africa,but has been observed in the U.S; read more http://www.thehorse.com/features/35412/west-nile-virus-in-u-s-horses?utm_source=Newsletter&utm_medium=farm-barn&utm_campaign=11-08-2015

VACCINATION AND HORSE HEALTH.

Diseases can occur suddenly, and without a proper vaccination protocol,it could be fatal. The benefit of vaccination aside from health status is hinged on the performance of the horse, and its much better to vaccinate your horses than to wait for disease incidence and initiate treatment. Vaccination protects the horse against disease agents by stimulating their immune system to develop antibodies when exposed to infectious agents.Vaccinations do not confer immediate protection,it takes the body 2-4 weeks to produce the protective antibodies against the disease.The first exposure vaccination must be followed by a booster shot at 4 weeks to strengthen the expected response. HOW TO GET THE BEST FROM VACCINATION. 1) Develop and maintain a vaccination protocol. 2)Obtain vaccines from reliable sources. 3)Maintain the cold chain. 4)Do not vaccinate sick animals. 5)Use sterile syringes and use recommended dose and route. The Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis, west nile virus,rabies and tetanus toxoid are essential for every horse, these must be done alongside other vaccinations.

Sunday, November 8, 2015

EQUINE VIRAL RHINOPNEUMONITIS.

The equine viral rhinopneumonitis caused by a herpes virus is also referred to as rhino in horses,this is similar to common cold in humans. Respiratory disease in horses is one of the reasons for poor performance in race horses.The herpes infection though not usually fatal can be a prolonged infection.The virus causes abortion,foal death,neurological diseases and respiratory tract problems. Rhinopneumonitis is spread by aerosol,direct contact with secretions,utensils,drinking water contaminated by nasal secretions.The complication is usually by secondary bacterial infection which might result in death. SIGNS 1) Fever, 2)clear nasal discharge 3) coughing 4) abortions. PREVENTION. 1) Vaccination. Mares should be vaccinated at 5,7 and 9 month of gestation. 2)Isolation of affected horses. 3) strict bio security protocol. 4) antibiotic treatment for secondary bacteria infection.